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department (0/ 

&\ of ^Ktrtes. 



i P. G. MORGAN, Director.! 

BULLETIN No. 12 (New Series). 











Geological Survey Office, 

Wellington, 1st December, 1911. 
Sir, — 

I have the honour to Bubmit herewith Bulletin No. 12 (new series) 
of the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department. This publica- 
tion deals with the general and economic geology of the Dun Mountain 
Subdivision, Nelson. 

The bulletin contains 71 pages of letterpress, and is illustrated by nine- 
plates, two block-diagrams, two general maps, two sheets of mine plans and 
sections, a special detailed geological map showing the copper and chromite 
deposits, a ^rologica] map of the subdivision, and a sheet of two geological 

I have the honour to be, 
Your obedient servant, 


Director, New Zealand Geological Survey 
Hon. Roderick McKenzie, 

Minister of Mines, Wellington. 


The text of the bulletin on the Dun Mountain Subdivision is the result of 
field-examinations conducted by myself, Dr. P. Marshall, and Mr. E. de C. 
Clarke. Mr. J. A. Bartrum, Assistant Geologist, was also in the field for 
a short period. To Mr. H. S. Whitehorn is due some of the topographical 
work on which the maps are based, though much of the information for 
these was obtained from the Lands and Survey Department. The survey 
of the subdivision was commenced in November, 1908, and finished in 
September, 1909. 

Nearly all of Chapter IV and the section on physiography in Chapter I, 
together with small portions of other chapters, were written by myself ; 
Dr. Marshall wrote nearly the whole of Chapter III and the bulk of the 
section on the Maitai rocks in Chapter II ; the remainder of the bulletin is 
the work of Mr. Clarke. 

The numerous assays and analyses quoted were made by Dr. J. S. 
Maclaurin, Dominion Analyst, and his staff. Mr. F. G. Gibbs, of Nelson, 
lent valuable assistance in the botanical section ; and Mr. W. F. Worley, 
also of Nelson, gave much general information. Thanks, moreover, are due 
to Mr. A. Hamilton (Wellington), Mr. G. J. Lancaster (Nelson), and many 
others for kindly assistance given in various ways. 



Letter of Transmittal 



I II VM l.u I. I tBNEB VI. I M "KM v I l"\. 

Area de ili wiili in this Bulletin 
Economic Reasons for undertaking the Bui 

\ IV 

Plan of conducting the Work 
Natural [features 

I '.iima 

( 'ultinv 





Culture -continued. 


Indus! ries 

\Ii. ins of ( lommunioal ion 
l.i'' i it in.- . . . . . . C> 

I'hv Biography . . . . . . . . 9 

( ieneral ( Seologj . . ..11 

Sequence and General Structure oi the 
several Formal ions . . . . ..11 

Viewa oi Previous Investigators 12 

Talralar Comparison of Classifications 13 

Chvitkk II. Skmmi s i vi:\ Rooks, 

The M.ut.ii Series 

1 1 

The •('•iiknis Hill Series continued. 

< ;iui nil Distribution 


1 distribution 

. 22 



si ruoture 





. 23 

Periods of folding 


i longjomeratee 

. 23 



Shales, and Mudstones 

. 2:1 

Petrology and Detailed Description 



. 23 




. 2:t 

Fossiliferous Shaly Mudstones, Sand 

IM. mtology . . 

. 23 

stones, and Qrauwaokes 


\'ji- . . 

. 26 



The Moutere Gravels 

. 26 



Nature and Distribution 

. 26 




. 21. 

Subdivision of the Series 



. 26 

Age and Corn-hit ion 



. 27 

The Jenkins Hill Series .. 


Recent Rooks 

. 27 

Chapter III. — Igneous Rocks. 

neks of the " Mineral Belt " 

. 29 


. 29 

Distribution and < Jeneral Description 

. 29 


. 30 


. 30 


. 30 


. 30 

\\ 'r-bsterite 

. 30 


. 31 

Diabase and Diorite 

. 35 

Serpentine . . 

. 36 

Rocks of the " Mineral Belt " — continued. 
Comparison of the Ultra-basic Rocks, and 

Explanation of their Occurrence 
Intrusive Characters 
Contact Effects 
Age of " Mineral Belt " 
Other Intrusive Rocks 
Brook Street Igneous Rocks 



Chapter IV. — Economic Geology. 

Introduction . . . . . . 41 

( (old . . . . . . . . . . 42 

In Alluvium . . . . . . 42 

In Quartz Veins . . . . 42 

Copper . . . . . . . . 43 

Situation and General Description of the 

Copper Belt . . . . 43 

Mineralogical Character of the Copper-ore. . 44 
Gangue-minerals associated with the Copper- 
ore . . . . . . . . 44 

Rocks associated with the Ores . . 45 

Mode of Occurrence of the Copper-ores . . 45 
History of the various Efforts to mine 

Copper-ore . . . . . . . . 4." 

Detailed Description of the various Copper- 
deposits . . . . . . 46 

Occurrence at " The Wood,'' Nelson . . 46 

Deposits in the Dun Mountain Area . . 46 

The Duck Pond Lode . . . . 48 

Saddle Lode . . . . . . 48 

Mount Claude West Lodes . . 49 

Jackson Lode . . . . . . 49 

Imperial Lode . . . . 49 

Monster Lode . . . . 50 

Head of Chromite Creek . . 51 

Johnston's United Mine . . 51 

The United Mine . . . . . . 51 

Development of Mine . . 51 

Mineralogical Character of the Ore .. 52 
Description of Shoots of Ore and 

Analyses . . . . 52 

The Champion Mine . . . . 55 

Development of Mine . . 56 

Mineralogical Character of the Ore . . 56 
Description of Shoots of Ore and 

Analyses . . . . 56 

Quantity of Ore and Future Prospects 

of Mine. . . . . . . . 58 

Copper — continued. 

Detailed Description of the various Copper- 
deposits — continued. 
Metallurgical Treatment of the Ores of the 
United and Champion Mines 
Origin of the Copper-ores 

Situation and General Description of the 

Chromite Belt 
Distribution of Chromite-deposits in other 

Parts of New Zealand and elsewhere 
Mode of Occurrence of the Ore . . 
Mineral Character of the Ore 
History of Chromite-mining in the Dun 

Mountain Subdivision 
Description of the various Properties 

Deposits in the Neighbourhood of Dun 

Deposits near Jackson Saddle 
Deposits on the Miner Stream . . 
Deposits on Chromite Creek . . 
Deposits in Serpentine Valley 
Deposits near Little Ben Nevis 
Origin of the Ore 

Distribution of Coal-bearing Rocks 
.Mineral Character, Associated Rocks, &c. . 
History of Coal-mining in the Dun Moun 

tain Subdivision 
Detailed Description of Principal Occur 
The Brook 
Enner Glyn 

Poor Man Creek to Church Valley Road . 
Proposed Sites for Deep Exploration 
Cement Materials, Building-stones, &c. 
Limestones and Argillites 











Table showing Geological Classifications 

Facing 13 
.. 67 



(. Reverberatory Furnace, Aniseed Valley 

II. Lower Wairoa Valley, showing Flood-plains 

Lower Wairoa Valley, showing Rock-cut Terrace, Gravel Terrace, and Subdued Topography 

III. Upper Wairoa Valley, showing Flood-plain and Rock-cut Terrace 
Hills nf the Moutere Gravels, 8outb of Brightwater 

IV. Wooded Peak, showing the Well-forested Nature of the Country where composed ot Maitai 


Dun Mountain and the CJpper Waters of the South .Maitai Stream, showing Sparseness oi 
\ i _■• tation on the Mineral Brit 

V. 1. Dunite, Dun Mountain 

2. Serpentine, Dun Mountain 

.'(. Hanburgite, Wairoa River 

4. Hanburgite, Lee River .. 

VI. 1. Coarse-grained Rodingite, Roding River 

2. Tin- same as I. Been between Crossed Niools 

3. A Vein and Isolated Grains of Prehnite in Grossularite, Roding River 
I Diallage, with Small [noluaiori of Bastite, from Websterite, Roding Rivei 

VII. Dyke of Rodingite in Serpentine below Lower Adil of Champion Mine 

Dyke of Fine-grained Rodingite in Serpentine, South-west side oi Champion Creek . . 

VIII. Haulage-line and Hoppers al the United Mine.. 

IX. The Surface Equipment of the Champion Mine, showing old Tip-heads, &o. 

Facing Page 








1. United Copper-mine, Uaungatapu Survey District 
j Monster Copper-mine, Uaungatapu Survey District 

3. Champion Copper-mine, Waimea Survey Di 

4. Johnston's* United Mine 



• Uii tin- BSOlOgleal map tln^ mi m ll ipett without the (. 


1. Map of New Zealand, showing Land Districts and Divisions 

2. Map of Motupiko Division, showing Survey Districts and Ana geologically surveyed .. 
3 Geological Map of Waimea and Maungatapu Survey Distrii 

i G ilogjcaJ Map showing Copper and Chrome Deposits between Champion ('nek and Dun Uoun 






I Section along Linr A I'., Waimea and Maungatapu Survey Districts 

tion along Line CD, Waimea Survey District 
3 Section along Line EF, Waimea Survey District . 


mooo.+ oa. s>a 

By Authority ; John Ma^kay, Government Printer. 

2 GO 

o S 





> B 

a: o. 


QL o 
^ z 


.2 t> 

s -. 


5 v "" 





















Introduction . . 




Area dealt with in this Bulletin 




Economic Reasons for undertaking 






Means of Communication 


Plan of conducting the Work. . 



Natural Features 






( ieneral Geology 




Sequence and General Structure 

of the 



several Formations 




Virus of Previous Investigators 


Tabular Comparison of Classifications 


Inthomci ION. 
A/to dealt with m ihi* liulhiin 
'I'm: Dun Mountain Subdivision comprised the surrey districts of Waimea and 
Maungatapu, situated in the Nelson Land District, and covers 2O5'90 square 
miles. The subdivision is bounded on the north by a line; running cast and west 
through Botanical Hill, in the Town of Nelson; "ii th<- south by a line running east 
and west through a point about four miles and three-quarters smith of Spring Grove ; 
on the east by the Pelorus River; and cm the west In Tasman May and by a line 
running south from near the mouth of the Waimea Kiver. 

Economic Reasons for undertaking the Survey. 
The determination of the nature and extent of the copper-deposits, which occur in 
ultra-basic igneous rocks in the valley of the Roding River and elsewhere, was the main 
object for undertaking the geological survey of the Dun Mountain Subdivision. A 
careful examination of the ana covered by these ultra-basic igneous rocks (the so-called 
"Mineral Belt") for other minerals of economic value, and more especially chrome- 
ores, was also considered desirable. The arrangement and extent of the seams of brown 
coal occurring in the area (which, according to the classification* adopted by the United 

* Marius R. Campbell : " A Practical Classification for Low-grade Coals," Economic Geology, vol. iii, 
1908, p. 134. 

1 — Dun Mountain. 

States Geological Survey, would be called sub-bituminous) were, prior to the commence- 
ment of the work, matters of uncertainty, and the determination of these points .seemed 
an additional reason for undertaking the survey. 

I'lan of conduct i/iy the Work. 
The methods employed in carrying out the survey were similar to those described 
in previous bulletins.* In the neighbourhood of tin- copper and chrome deposits, and 
in the Champion and Un'ted mines, careful surveys by theodolite were made. It may 
be observed that in these areas compass surveys are of little or no value, owing to the 
varving influence of the ultra-basic rocks on the magnetic needle. 

Natural Features. 

The scenery of the Dun Mountain Subdivision presents few features which call for 
special description. The eastern portion of the area is occupied by forest-covered 
mountains rising usually to a little more than ."5,000 ft. above sea-level. The western 
part consists of the level, fertile, highly cultivated lowland, through which ramify the 
Waimea River and its tributaries. There is thus a striking contrast between the wild 
and uncultivated scenery of the eastern half and the smiling prosperity of the Waimea 
Plain with its railway and numerous roads. The altitude is nowhere sufficiently great 
to give a grand or imposing landscape, but there is much charm in the glens and gorges 
of the interior. 

In general the description of the scenery of the Parapara Subdivision! is largely 
applicable to the present area, but a highly distinctive feature is introduced by the 
occurrence of the "Mineral Belt" — a zone of boulder-strewn country, often dun- 
coloured owing to the rusty weathering of the rocks, almost totally devoid of trees, and 
covered only by a sparse growth of stunted shrubs and smaller plants. 

The climate of the Nelson District is celebrated for its mild and equable character. 
The settled portions are well sheltered from the cold southerly winds by the mountainous 
hinterland, and form one of the chief fruit-growing districts of the Dominion. The 
following tables summarize the available statistics of the temperature and rainfall for 
the Nelson District : — 

A. Temperature, in Degrees Fahrenheit. 

Average Monthly Temperature during Periods stated 

(both Dates always included). 


i^tfL 1869-79. 

1905-Mar. 1910. 

and 1862-67. 

















































* See, for example, Bulletins No. 3, p. 2 ; and No. 8, p. 2 (New Series), N.Z.G.S. 
f Bulletin No. 3 (New Serbs), N.Z.G.S. p. 7. 

B. Rainfall, in Inches. 
Average for Different Seasons, 1844-54 and 1862-67. 

Spring (September, October, November) 
Summer (December, January, February) 
Autumn (March, April, May) 
Winter (June, July, August) 




Average Monthly Rainfall (both Dates 
always included). 

January . . 
August . . 
October . . 


1899-.\Iar., 1910. 

























Yearly averages 



The most noticeable feature of these tables is perhaps the decrease of rainfall 
during the period 1899 to March, 1910, which is so marked thai it Beems probable 
that the situation of the rain-gauge during one of the periods was unsuitable for the 
obtaining of average results. 


The remarks on the fauna of the Parapara Subdivision* may be applied without 
much change to the Dun Mountain Subdivision. Native animals are, however, as else- 
where in the Dominion, becoming yearly fewer and shyer. Of introduced animals, 
red ami fallow deer (especially the former), pigs, and goats are increasing in numbers. 
Trout have been placed in many of the streams, but are not particularly abundant. 

Flora. f 

The plant associations of the Dun Mountain Subdivision present many interesting 
features, which can only be briefly touched on here. 

In general the flora of the area under consideration resembles that of the northern 
part of the west coast of the South Island, but is somewhat richer in species. Con- 
sidered ecologically the area may lx.' subdivided as follows: (a) The coastal area; 
(6) the plains area: (c) Flaxmoor, the Port Hills, and the western slopes of the Rich- 
mond and Heslington hills; (d\ the river-Hats of the Maitai, Wairoa, and Roding 
rivers and their tributaries; (o the beech forest; (/> the ''Mineral Belt." 

(a.) Tht Coastal Area. — The writers have had no opportunity of obtaining infor- 
mation as to the nature of the plant associations in this part of the subdivision which, 
owing to the recent strata which compose it, does not call for geological examination. 

* Bulletin No. 3 (New Series), N.Z.G.S., p. 2. 

+ The writers are greatly indebted to Mr. F. < '•. • ribbfl for all the material of this section, which but meagrely 
represents the store of interesting facts which Mr. Gibbs has collected during his botanical excursions. For 
the final form of the section the writers are, of course, wholly responsible. 

1* — Dun Mountain. 

(//.i The Plains Area. — Owing to the advanced state of cultivation on the Waimea 
Plain, little of the original flora now remains. A few clumps of bush which have been 
preserved show amongst their must characteristic plants Alectryon excehum, Sophora 
tetraptera, Olea rnontana, Hedycarya arborea, Fagus fusca, and F. Solandri. 

(c.) Flaxmoor, the Port Hills, and the Western Slopes of the Richmond and Ifes- 
lington Ilills. — It is remarkable how completely all trace of the bush which must have 
covered the Port, Richmond, and Heslington hills has now disappeared. The writers 
failed to observe any stumps or other relics of the departed forest. On the steep slopes 
of the gullies Leptospermum ericoides, I., scoparvum, Cyathodes acerosa, I.eucopogon 
fasciculatus, L. Fraseri, and the bracken (Pteris esculenta) are usually to be found. The 
bottoms of the western-flowing streams of the Richmond Hills are still occupied by a 
plant association, of which the chief members are Olearia Cunninghamii, Myoporum 
latum. Piper excelsum, Beilschmiedia tawa, and Rhopalostylis sapidd. Melicytus rami- 
fiorus, Aristotelia racemosa, Pennantia corymbosa, Alectyron excelsum, Rubus australis, 
Fuchsia excorticata, F. Colensoi, Panax arboreum, Veronica salici folia, V . angustifoha, 
Myrtus obcordata, M. pedunculated Hedycarya arborea, Rhipogonum scandens, an occa- 
sional Podocarpus spicatus and P. dacrr/dioides are also to be found in these gullies. 
On the edges of the bush Muehlenbeckia australis and .1/. complexa are of frequent 
occurrence. Drosera binata occurs on the Hope Saddle, and D. auriculata is found on 
the Port Hills. 

{(i.) The River-flat* of the Maitai, Wairoa, and Roding Rivers and their Tribu- 
taries. — The river-flats of the Maitai, Wairoa, and Roding rivers have been extensively 
cleared by settlers, and therefore but little of the native flora now remains. The few 
clumps of bush left show that the flats were occupied by a "mixed bush," of which the 
most striking trees were Podocarpus spicatus, P. dacrydioides, and Dacrydium cupres- 
sinum, together with several species of Fagus. Scutellaria novoz-zealandioz is a plant 
which is rather characteristic of the Maitai Valley. The Aniseed Valley owes its name 
to the former abundance of Angelica Gingidium. The occurrence of Pseudopanax ferox 
in the Wairoa Gorge — one of the few places in Xew Zealand where it survives — is of 

(e.) The Beech Forest. — The beech forest occupies the smaller gullies and the slopes 
of nearly all the hills except those described under (c). At the lower levels the plant 
association is a mixed bush differing but little from that just described. Striking 
forms are — Drim/ys axillaris, B. colorata, Melicytus ramiflorus, Pittosporum Colensoi, 
P. tenuifolium, Hoheria populnea (the ordinary narrow-leaved South Island form), 
Eloeocarpus dentatus, E. Hookerianus, Oarpodetus serratus, Weinmannia racemosa, 
Metrosideros lucida. Fuchsia excorticata, F. Colensoi, Panax simplex, P. anomalum, 
P. arboreum, P. Colensoi, Pseudopanax crassifolium, Griselinia littoralis; the large- 
leaved species of Coprosma (C . grandifolia, C. robusta, and C. lucida), besides a num- 
ber of small-leaved species; Olearia nifida, 0. Cunninghamii, 0. avicennia folia, 0. 
Forsteri (the last-named being more characteristic of the open country"), Helichrysum 
glomeratum, Brachyglottis repanda, Dracophyllum longifolium, Myrsine Urvillei, M. 
rnontana, Veronica Menziesii, V. vernicosa, Podocarpus Halln'. P. totara, Dacri/dium 
cupressinum, and, at the mouths of the gullies, Pennantia corymbosa. 

The Xelson bush is not remarkable for the number of its ferns. The most striking 
are the tree-ferns Cyathea dealbata, C. medullaris, Hemitelia Smithii, and Dicksonia 
squarrosa, the dog-fern (Lomaria discolor), and the crape-fern (Todea hymenophylloides). 
Of the lycopods, Lycopodium Billardieri and L. volubile are the most frequent. Lianes 
are not notably abundant. Clematis hexasepala, C. australis, 0. parviflora, Rubus 
australis. Metrosideros hyper id folia, Parsonsia heterophylla, and Rhipogonum scandens 

are the most common. Freycinetia Banksii occurs in any profusion only on the 
country occupied by outcrops of Maitai limestone. 

The higher parts of the beech forest are characterized by the great preponderance 
of the beeches Fagus Cliffortioides and /■'. Menziesii. The conifers lAbocedrus Bidwillii, 
Dacrydium Bidwillii, and Fhyllocladus alpinus are abundant. The parasite Elytranthe 
tetrapetala is abundant everywhere above the 1,000-ft. level. Above the tree-line, notice- 
able plants are- Ranunculus geraniifolius (the flowers of which strike up through the 
unmelted snows of early spring before the leaves have appeared), Aciphylla Colensoi, 
A. polita, A. squarrosa, Celmisia spectabilis, several species of Raoulia and Gnaphalium, 
Helichrysum microphyllum, Cassvnia fulnda, Craspedva uniflom, several species of 
Co tula, Senecio lagopus, and Fhormium Cookianum. 

(/.i T/ir "Mineral Belt."- The plant association of the ■'.Mineral Belt," the 
physical characteristics of which are briefly described on page 2 of this bulletin, is 
a highly xerophytic one, ami shows several very remarkable adaptations of plants to the 
exceptional conditions. The plants are mainly shrubs displaying in a marked degree 
the thickly interlaced zigzagging stems, the reduction in size and number of leaves, 
the great development of cuticular protective tissues, and tin' widely ramifying root- 
systems which are tn l>c expected in plants growing in dry and barren soil. Of these 
shrubs, Notothlaspi australe, Hymenanthera crassifolia, Myosotis Monroi, Euphrasia 

Monroi, and Fimelea Suteri ate an <_ r st the most characteristii plants of the " Mineral 

Belt," Fimelea Suteri being entirely confined t" it. Pittosporum rigidum is frequently 
found, and is remarkable for the great difference between its habits when growing in 
the bush (where it is 10 ft. or Tift, high) and on the " Mineral Belt " country (when it 
appears as a little cushion plant hugging 'he rocks). Occasionally, on the border-line 
between bush and " Mineral Belt," a specimen of this plant will be found showing both 
habits in different parts. Another cushion plant is Colobanthus quitensrs, which also 
occurs in the Andes. The common Exocarpus Bidwillii is a member of the Santalacese, 
but is non-parasitic, and has it> leaves reduced t" minute scales. Dacrydium laxi- 
folium deserves mention as being the smallest known conifer. Stellaria Roughii, 
formerly a characteristic plant, has now quite disappeared, having probably l>een eaten 
out by goats and deer. Ligusticum aromalicum and Olearia virgata are also very 
plentiful. Another characteristic plant is Aristotelia fruticosa, which displays great 
diversity of form, being sometimes hardly distinguishable in habit from the cushion 
form of Pittosporum rigidum. A. Colensoi also occurs, hut not so abundantly. Other 
common plants are -Coprosma Cunninghamii, C. propinqua, ('elm/sia longi folia, Heli- 
chrysum bellidioides, Cassinia fulvida, Wahlenbergia saxieola, Cyathodes empetrifolia, 
Dracophyllum UrvUleanum, I), rosmarinifolium, Myrsine divaricata, Gentiana corym- 
bifera, Veronica buxi folia, Muehlenbeckia axillaris, Poranlhera microphylla, Libertia 
ixioides, I., grandiflora, Astelia nervosa, Fhormium tenax, and /'. Cookianum. The 
leptospermums (ericoidet and scoparium), usually so characteristic of dry localities, 
occur only occasionally on the " Mineral Belt.'" Metrosidcros lucida is found near the 
margin of the belt, and occasionally in clumps farther up. The c immonest grasses are 
Danthonia Raoulii and Poa Colensoi. The higher cryptogams are not abundant, the 
most common being Lomaria eapensis, Gleichenia circitiata, G. Cunninghamii, and 
Lycopodium *elago. 

The settlement of the Nelson Province dates back to the years of 1841 and 1842, when 
the ships "Whitby," -Will Watch." " Fifeshire," "Mary Ann," and "Lord Auck- 
land," chartered by the New Zealand Company, brought emigrants from England to 

the district. It is to the untiring industry of these pioneers and their descendants 
that the present prosperity <>f the province is mainly due. According to the census 
returns, the population of the Dun Mountain Subdivision in 1 5)06 was approximately 
11,300, of which 8,164 resided in the Town of Nelson, and G.jl in the Borough of 
Richmond. Of the remainder, only about 112 lived in the valleys of the mountainous 
eastern portion of the area ; the rest occupied the small farms and settlements of 
the Waimea Plain. 


Hop-growing, which wis formerly of considerable importance, lias of late years 
declined in favour of the cultivation of fruit, which is now the chief industry of the 
area under consideration. Large quantities of fruit are exported to Wellington, 
or preserved locally. Agricultural products of several kinds are grown on the 
Waimea Plain, the mildness of the climate and the nearness of the Wellington market 
being much in favour of the raising of garden produce. 

Some sheep-farming is also carried on in the subdivision, but this industry is 
conducted much more extensively in the remote] - parts of the Nelson Province. A 
small freezing-works lias lately been erected near Richmond. A little timber, but only 
enough to meet local requirements, is sawn. Remarks on the mining industry are 
reserved for a later chapter. 

Means of Communication . 

r lhe Port of Nelson is accessible to all steamers except those of very large tonnage. 
There is regular and frequent communication with Wellington, which is within six 
and a half hours' steam. 

A railway and excellent roads afford ready means of access to all settled parts of 
the subdivision. The only well-defined tracks in the south-eastern portion of the sub- 
division are two, along which sheep are driven to the mountain pastures. 

Telephone bureaus and frequent mails bring the settled parts of the district into 
ready communication with one another and with the outside world. 

The following list includes, so far as the writers are aware, all publications which 
contain anything of interest on the geology of the Dun Mountain Subdivision: — 

The abbreviations which require explanation are — Rep. G.S. : " Reports of the 
Geological Survey of Xew Zealand." Trans.: Transactions and Proceed- 

ings of the Xew Zealand Institute." A capital letter followed by a figure (thus, 
C— 3) refers to a Xew Zealand parliamentary paper. 

L863. Hochstetter, F. von, and Peterman, A.: "Atlas von Xeu Seeland," pp. 18-20. 
Short account of the geology of the district. 

1864. Hochstetter, F. von : " Dunit Korniger Olivinfels von Dun Mountain bei 
Nelson." Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. Zeitschr., xvi, 341. 

1864. Hochstetter, F. von: "Geology of Xew Zealand." P. 103, short description of 

coal-mine at Enner Glyn ; p. 108, brief outline of the geology of the province. 

1865. Hochstetter, F. von : Geologie von Xeu Seeland : " Beitriige zur Geologie der 

Provinzen Auckland und Nelson." " Novara " E.xp. Geol., Theil i, Band 1, 
Abth. Neues Jahrb. Mineralog., 874. 

1867. Hochstetter. F. von: "Xew Zealand, its Physical Geography, Geology, <vc." 
PP. 462-477, general account of scenery and mineral productions; pp. 82-83, 
descriptions of the coal-workings at Enner Glyn. 

1870. Wells, W. : Trans., vol. iii, pp. 287-292. " Remarks on the Resemblance of the 
Country in the Neighbourhood of the Dun Mountain and the Wairoa Gorge 
to the Mining Districts of Queensland and Auckland." Considers that there 
are close resemblances between the Dun Mountain, Thames, and Rockhampton 
districts. Cupreous and chromic ores from the Dun Mountain yielded small 
but distinct traces of gold. 

1870. Hector, J.: "Catalogue of the Colonial Museum"; "Synopsis of the Arrange- 

ment of Formations represented by the Collections of Fossils." Places Maitai 
Series at the base of Trias, between Wairoa and Kaihiku Series. 

1871. Da\i>, E. II.: i>V]>. G.S. during 1870-71, p. 103. "On the Geology of certain 

Districts of the Nelson Province." Valuable record of careful observations. 
Believes that the "Mineral Belt" rocks are all of metamorphic and not of 
eruptive origin, hut recognizes igneous character of many associated rocks. 

1^77. Hector. .1.: Rep. G.S. during 1873—74. "Progress Report," p. i\. Considers 
that the Wairoa Series uncon form ably overlies the Maitai (th. equivalent of 
Button '8 Kaikoura Formation). 

1^77. Button, F. W. : Rep. G.S. during 1873 71. p. 27. " North-east Portion of the 
South Island." Brief references to the geology of the area under consider- 
ation. Results are included in the comparative table of classification facing 
page 13 of this bulletin. 

1877. Cox, S. II.: Rep. G.S. during L874-76, p. 7. "Report on Nelson District." 

Short rifumi of geology of the district, and of economic possibilities of Maitai 
- ries and " Mineral Belt," which are regarded as rather problematical. 

1878. Hector. J.: Rep. G.S. during 1877—78, p. iii. "Progress Report." Agrees 

with McKay's results. 

1878. McKay, k. : Rep. G.S. during 1877-78, p. 11!'. "Report on the Wairoa and 

Dun Mountain Districts." A very important paper: results incorporated 
in tin' table of comparative classification facing page 13 of this bulletin. 
Considers that the Maitai Set les is inverted iii the northern part of the 

1879. Hector, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1878—79, p. 30. " Progress Report." Mainly 

a summary of McKay's report. 

1879. McKay, A : Rep. G.S. during 1878-79, p. !»7. "The District between the 
Wairau and Motueka VaUeys." An important paper. It follows Dav 
views in the main. Inclines to regard the "Mineral Belt " as mainly con 
temporaneous with the associated sedimentary rocks. 

L881. Hector, J.: lop. G.S. during 1879-80, p. vi. " Progi bs Report." Summary 

of COX'S results. 

1881. Cox, S. B. : Rep. G.S. during 1879-80, p. 1. "On certain Rivers in the 
Nelson and Collingwood Districts, and the Geology of the Riwaka Ranges." 
Gives accounts of "Johnston's Copp r Stratum," "Aniseed Valley Company's 
Copper-mine." " Roding River Mine," and the prospects of the Dun Moun- 
tain Company's property. 

1881. Cox, S. H. : Trans., vol. xiv. p. lis. " Notes on the Mineralogy of New Zea- 

land." Refers to minerals from the subdivision. 

1882. Hector, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. x. "Progress Report." Chrome-deposits 

in the vicinity of Nelson. 

1882. Hector, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. 1. "Chrome Ores of Nelson." A sum- 
mary of the information on the occurrences of chrome-ore in New Zealand. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. •">. "Chrome Deposits of Nelson." An 
account of all the known occurrences of chrome-ores in the district. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. 8. "Chrome Deposits of Nelson: Sup- 
plementary Report." Considers that owing to the expense of transport it 
would be better to treat the ore locally. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. 10. •"Aniseed Valley Company's Copper- 
mine. " Considers that further prospecting-work is warranted. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Rep. G.S. during 1881, p. 12. "Aniseed Valley Copper-mine: 
Supplementary Report." Prospects are not so good as stated in the previous 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Trans., vol. xv, p. 361. " Notes on the Mineralogy of New Zea- 
land." Reference to minerals from the subdivision. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : Trans., vol. xv, p. 409. '"On a New Mineral belonging to the 

Serpentine Group." Is described as hectorite. 

1883. Cox, S. H. : Trans., vol. xvi, p. 448. " On the Occurrence of some New Minerals 

in New Zealand." Notes on the occurrence of " chalcotrichite " at the Cham- 
pion Copper-mine. 

1884. Cox, S. H. : Rep. G.S. during 1883-84, p. 84. "On the Champion and United 

Copper-mines at Nelson." Gives an account of the mine-workings, and con- 
siders the prospects doubtful. 
1884. Hector, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1883-34, p. xxvii. ".Progress Report." Short 
note on Cox's report. 

1884. Wells, W. : Trans., vol. xvii, p. 344. " On the Drift Beds of Wakapuaka and Port 

Hills, with Remarks on the Boulder Rank and its Formation." Supports the 
theory that the Boulder Bank has been formed by drift from Mackay's Bluff. 

1885. Hutton, F. W. : Q.J. G.S, vol. xli, p. 191. -Sketch of the Geology of New Zea- 

land." Brief references to geology of subdivision. 

1886. Hector, J. : " Handbook of New Zealand," p. 48. 

1886. Hutton, F. W. : Trans., vol. xix, p. 412. " On the so-called Gabbro of Dun Moun- 
tain." Concludes that the rock is a plagioclase-anthophyllite rock. 

1886. Park, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1885, p. 178. "On the Older Fossiliferous Rocks 

in Nelson." Gives a classification of the older fossiliferous rocks of the Nelson 
Province, and lists of fossils from them. 

1887. Hector, J.: Rep. G.S. during 1887-88, p. xxv., "Progress Report." Descrip- 

tion of the Champion Mine and of the geology of the neighbourhood. 

1887. C.-l, p. 56. Report on the Champion Mine, character of the country, and method 
of working. 

1889. Hutton, F. W. : Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society ot N.S.W., 
vol. xxiii, p. 102. " The Eruptive Rocks of New Zealand." Describes the 
microscopic structure of several rocks from the subdivision. 

1893. Worley, W. F. : Trans., vol. xxvi, p. 414. " Geology of Nelson." Brief popular 
account of the geology of part of the subdivision. 

1899. Worley, W. F. : Trans., vol. xxxii, p. 221. "On the Nelson Boulder Bank." 
Considers that the Boulder Bank is formed mainly not by boulders washed from 
Mackay's Bluff, but that there is an underlying stratum of boulders, contem- 
poraneous with the adjoining Miocene sedimentaries. 


Lower Wairoa Valley, showing Flood Plains. 

Lower Wairo.a Valley, showing Rock-gut Terrace, Gravel Terrace, and Siblued 


Geo. /lu/>. No. [To fact pagi 9. 


1890. Hutton, F. W. : Trans., vol. xxxii. p. 159. •The Geological History of New 
/•■alaml." Contains some reference to older rocks of the subdivision. 

1903. Marshall, P.: Trans, vol. xxwi. p. 4(>7. "Boulders in Triassic Conglomerate, 
Nelson." An account of several varieties of igneous rocks found in the Maitai 

1903. Park, J.: Trans., vol. xxwi, p. 373. "On the Subdivision of the Lower Meso 
zoic Rocks of New Zealand." Contains a summary of the author's views on 
the position and arrangement of the Triassic and other rocks near Nelson. 

1903. Park. .1.: Trans., vol. xxxvi, p. 431. "On th, Jurassic Age of the Maitai 

Series." Concludes, in opposition to McKay and Hector, that the Wairoa 
Series lies conformably below the Maitai Formation. 
1901. C.-3, p. <>4. Note on taking up of old workings by the Mineral Bell Coppei 
mining Company. 

1904. Park, J.: Trans., vol. xxxvii, p. 189. "On the Marine Tertiaries of Otago 

ami Canterbury," &c. Contains (page 548) a short account of the Port Hills 
Beds and a list of fossils from thom. Places the beds in the Oamaru Series 
i M iocen 

1905. ('.-•>, pp. 19, 55. Short report on the workings of the Mineral Bell Coppei 

mining Company . 

1906. Sollas and McKay: " Rocks of Cape Colville Peninsula, New Zealand," vol. ii, 

pp. | .").")- 56. 

1906. McKay, A.: " Further Notes on the Iron ores of New Zealand/' " New Zea- 

land Mining Handbook," p. 172. A reprint from the New Zealand Mines 
Record of July, 1900. 

1907. C.-.'i, pp. 7, •'?•'{. References to workings of the Maoriland Copper Company. 
1!H)7. Marshall, P.: "Distribution of the Igneous Rocks of Now Zealand." Report 

of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, l!tt)7, p. ■'!<>(>. 
Brief mention of the more-important igneous rocks of the subdivision. 

1908. C.-3, pp. '•', :il : References to the workings of the Maoriland Copper Company. 

1908. Bell, J. M. : " New Zealand as a Mining Country." Australasian Mining Stan- 
dard, vol, xl. No. luiii (November). Contains a short note on the copper- 
deposits of A niseed Valley. 

1908. Marshall, 1'.: Trans., vol. si, p. 320. Note on the gabbro of the Dun Mountain. 

1909. Park, J.: New Zealand Mines Record, vol. \ii, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10. "Outline of 

New Zealand Geology." References to the geology of the subdivision, more 
particularly (No. 10, p. 135) to the relation between the Wairoa and Maitai 

1910. Park, J.: " The Geology of New Zealand." lias many references to the geology 

of the subdivision. On p. 7)2 the author expresses his complete agreement with 
McKay as to the Carboniferous age of the Maitai Set ies. 


From a physiographical standpoint the Dun Mountain Subdivision exhibits three 
main features — a mountainous back country, an alluvial plain, and very gently roll- 
ing gravel hills. 

The mountainous hinterland is thought to form part of that old faulted peneplain — 
representing a former approximation of the land to sea-level — which covers so much of 


the northern part of the South Island of New Zealand.* The mountains are not high, 
the most lofty altitude in the area being reached by Dun Mountain, which rises to 
3,703 ft. Other prominent altitudes are shown by Wood, d Peak, 3,646 ft., and 
Trig. £, 3,145ft. Starveall, a well-dissected mountain of irregular shape just out- 
side of the Dun Mountain Subdivision, reaches a height of about 4,000ft. The moun- 
tainous country can scarcely l>e said to be rugged, as the steep slopes are generally 
well graded, though outcrops of solid rock occur in places, and are occasionally even 

'I he plain and the low rolling gravel hills above mentioned occupy a broad deep 
graben, or down faulted area, in the old base-levelled surface now represented by the 
elevated mountain country. 

The fertile Waimea Plain, dotted with farmsteads and orchards, is the flood-plain 
of the Waiinea River and its tributaries. These streams have easily worn away the 
little consolidated Moutere Gravels which formerly covered the whole of the floor of the 
graben above mentioned, and thus have formed the Waimea Plain, which is now rapidly 
advancing seaward by the deposition of silt, sand, and gravel in the quiet waters of 
Tasman Bay. The Waimea Plain rises gradually from sea-level in the salt marshes 
to 89 ft. at the village of Brightwater, which is situated near the southern border of 
the subdivision. 

The low rolling hills are known in the area now being described, as the Port Hills 
and the Moutere Hills. The former fringe the mountainous country on the east, and 
the latter border the Waimea Plain on the west. As is mentioned later (see page 26), 
the Moutere Hills consist entirely, and the Port Hills in part, of the deposits of a great 
southward-flowing river. Both the Moutere Hills and the Port Hills abut against 
the sea in abrupt cliffs, but their inland slopes are very gentle and well graded. In 
the Dun Mountain Subdivision their altitude is nowhere more than a few hundreds of 
feet (the highest points being, on the Port Hills, at Trig. 1, which has an altitude of 
44.1 ft., and on the Moutere Hills at Trig. 0, 1,106 ft. high), but farther south their 
even crest-line may be seen to rise gradually to higher elevations. 

The Dun Mountain Subdivision is well drained, and the country deeply dissected by 
the Pelorus, Maitai, and Waimea rivers and their tributaries. In the mountainous 
country the valleys are narrow and sinuous, gorges being common; and though the grade 
of the streams for the most part is gentle, waterfalls occur, and are even frequent at 
the headwaters In the Moutere Hills ami in the very limited Ports Hills the valleys 
of the streams, as may be expected in such soft strata, are relatively wide — the width 
depending, of course, on the size of the streams which drain them — and invariably flow 
at grade. On the Waimea Plain the larger streams are swift and flow in broad meanders, 
cutting deeply into the banks at every turn. The small streams which drain the western 
slopes of the Richmond and Heslington hills are, soon after their entry on the Waimea 
Plain, diverted into the ditches by which this low country, formerly very swampy, is 
drained. Their lower courses are therefore not generally shown on the maps. If 
adequate reservoirs were constructed in the upper valleys of the Roding, Wairoa, and 
other streams which flow from the mountains on to the plains, they would supply a 
considerable amount of water-power. 

Well-preserved gravel terraces, of which the most notable occurs near the Wairoa 
River in the vicinity of Brightwater, fringe the alluvial flats of the Waimea and its 
tributaries. Remarkable terraces, or benches cut in solid rock, border gorges on the 
Wairoa and Roding rivers. 

* Bulletin Xo. 3 (New Series), N.Z.G.S., p. 24. See also " The Physiography of Wellington Harbour," 
by J. M. Bell (Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xlii, 1909, p. 534). Manv years ago McKay described the district 
as a plain of marine denudation (G.S. Rep. during 1878-79, vol. 12., 1879, p. 100). 


From the Town of Nelson to the western edge of the subdivision the northern 
boundary of tha area under review is formed by the shallow waters of Tasman Hay. 
The last movement of the Land, au event which took place within comparatively recent 
times, was in a downward direction. Since this occurrence numerous bars and islands 
nt' sand and gravel have been developed, and the channels between them becoming 
insilted, the shore line has consequently advanced seawards. 

The principal sandbars— Rabbit Island. &c. — lie oft' the mouth of the Waimea River, 
and were formed by the combined action of the waves and current acting on the silt, 
sand, 4c., brought down by the river. The Nelson Boulder Hank, which lies just to 
the north of tin subdivision, has generally been regarded as formed by the Long- 
continuad southward drift of the boulders shed from Mackay's Bluff. Mr. Worley* 
states objections to this theory, and considers that the bank represents in the main 
the outcrop of an upturned stratum of boulders that underlies the Jenkins Hill Beds 
(of Miocene age, see page 23). 

Genbral Geology. 
Sequenct ami General Structurt nf iln .<< n ral Formations, 

The oldest rocks found in the Dun Mountain Subdivision consist of a great series 
of conglomerates, breccias, grauwackes, limestones, and argillites, with which is asso- 
ciated a local development of contemporaneous basic flows ami tuffs (the Brook Street 
igneous rocks). The whole will be known as the " Maitai Series" in tins bulletin, 
although tlie name as originally given by Hochsl tter, and afterwards employed by 
Hector, Hutton, McKay, ami Hark, applied onl\ to a portion of the series as under- 
stood by the writers of this report. t 

The rocks of the Maitai Series have a general north north-east ami south-south- 
west strike, and usually dip Steeply either to the southeast or north west, but are seldom 

contented. The Lowest part of the series is considered from palasontological evidence 
to be of Triassic age. 

The Maitai rocks art pierced by an extensive mass of ultra-basic intrusions mainly 

altered to serpentines, but with considerable development of peridotite, harzburgite, 
dunite, websterite, rodingite, and allied rocks, the outcrop of which, stretching almost 
continuously in a uorth-easl ami south-west direction across the subdivision in a band 

varying from balf a mile to over three miles in width, forms what is Locally known as the 

" Mineral Belt." 

Unconformably overlying tin- Maitai Series is a succession of congl crates, sand- 
stones, shales, mudstoues, and limestones, with occasional coal seams, known in this 
bulletin as the "Jenkins Hill Series." To these, from palasontological evidence, tin" 
writers would assign a Miocene age. The name " Port Bills Beds," as used by Hector, 
McKay, and others, refers, strictly Bpaaking, only to a portion of the series. The 
"Jenkins Hill Series" has therefore been employed in preference in this bulletin, 
as having a wider signification. 

The Jenkins Hill Series is exposed as a narrow and discontinuous band, bordered 
on the east by the abruptly rising Richmond Hills, formed of Maitai rocks, and on the 
west by the level alluvial plain of the Waimea and its tributaries. Although from 
paheontological evidence there can be no doubt that the Jenkins Hill Reds are con- 
siderably younger than the Maitai Series, yet, wherever the stratigraphical arrange 
ment can be deciphered, the Miocene beds are seen to dip eastward at high angles, 

♦Trans. 1890, vol. xxxii. p. 221. 

t The term " Maitai " as here used thus includes the Maitai, Wairoa, Kaihiku, and Otajiiri of McKay and 
Hector. See also table facing p. 13. 


except at the entrance to the Wairoa Gorge, and thus apparently to underlie the 
Maitai rucks. This anomaly is due to the presence of a great fault — called in this 
bulletin the " Richmond Fault "*— by which the country to the west comprising the 
Waimea Plain lias been down-faulted, and has thus formed a graben or area of sub- 
sidence. Only along or near the line of the Richmond Fault have the Jenkins Hill 
Beds been exposed, and, as a result of the fault, the beds have been greatly dislocated and 
apparently often completely overturned. Along the w-estern face of the Richmond and 
Heslington hills, in close proximity, and running more or less parallel, to the Rich- 
mond Fault, are a number of minor faults. These, especially in the neighbourhood of 
Hudson, Malcolm, Lankow, and Paton creeks (where seven fault-scarps were dis- 
tinguished), may easily be traced at the surface by their fault-scarps, which take the 
form of steep banks, sometimes as much as 10 ft. in height, following a straight course 
perhaps for more than a quarter of a mile, but sooner or later dying out or joining with 
other scarps. The fact that they follow a straight course across spurs and gullies alike 
shows that the fault-planes must be nearly vertical. The rocks show shattering in 
the neighbourhood of the faults. In general the downthrow would appear to be small 
and to the west. Whether or not these minor faults are contemporaneous with the 
Richmond Fault the writers could not determine. 

The Jenkins Hill Series is succeeded by a considerable thickness of river-gravels 
which form the low lying Moutere Hills, and are also found unconformably overlying 
the Jenkins Hill Beds at the Port Hills, and in various places along the base of the 
Richmond Hills. In deference to McKay's views an Upper Miocene age and the name 
of " Moutere Gravels " are given to these deposits in this bulletin, but it appears likely 
that the deposits in question will ultimately be assigned to a later geological time. 

The upper portion of the Boulder Bank and several travertine and surface-breccia 
deposits may be classed as Recent in age. Of the same age are the alluvial deposits, 
which consist of gravels and silts of various degrees of coarseness, and form the Waimea 
Plain, the mud-flats and low-lying islands at the mouth of "the Waimea River, a few 
coastal sand-dunes, and smaller areas in the valleys of the various streams. 

Views of Previous Investigators. 

Hochstetter' s Original Classification . — During the year 1859 the Provincial Govern- 
ments of Auckland and Nelson obtained the services of Dr. F. von Hochstetter, a member 
of the "Novara" Scientific Expedition, for the purpose of carrying out geological 
explorations in those parts of New Zealand. Hochstetter spent two months in the 
Nelson Province. As the result of his observations he assigned the rocks occurring in 
the Dun Mountain Subdivision to six different geological periods. The oldest rocks 
he considered to be those found east of the " Mineral Belt," and to be Palaeozoic. The 
sediments forming the high land between the " Mineral Belt " and the Waimea Plain, 
which lie subdivided into "Maitai Series" and "Richmond sandstone,' 7 he assigned to 
a single system, the age of which was determined by the occurrence of Triassic fossils 
in the Richmond sandstone. " If the Richmond sandstones belong to the Triassic, so 
must also the Maitai slates and the limestones of the Wooded Peak be Triassic. "f 

Hochstetter regarded the "Mineral Belt" as a dyke of serpentine, and classed 
it under his "eruptive formations of the Mesozoic period." Under the same heading 
he placed the Brook Street igneous rocks, which he described as " pyroxene-porphyries." 

The beds occurring at Jenkins Coal-mine at Enner Glyn Hochstetter regarded as 
forming the base of the Older Tertiary. The fossiliferous beds at the Port Hills he called 
" Younger Tertiary." 

* This is the " Waimea Fault " of McKay. See G.S. Rep. during 1890-91, vol. 21, 1892, p. 20. 
t Reise der Novara, Geologie, vol. i, p. 229. 




Hills i>k the Moutere Gravels, South of Brightwater, and looking towards Mount 

Gto. Hull. No. 12.] [To face pagt 12. 

{"New Zealand," p. 57, &o.) 

(Rep. G.S., 1870-71.) 

(Rep. G.S., 1873.) 

(Rop. G.S., 1H78-79.) 

[New Zealand Mines Record, 1909.) 

Classification of this Bulletin. 


Subdivisions, Locations, 
and Character of Series. 



Series and Subdivisions 
of Formations. 


Series or Forma- 



Series or Formation. | 

Subdivisions of Series. 

Principal Localities. 



Series or Forma- ■ 

Subdivisions of Series. Agp. 

Rooks ou eastern side of 
" Mineral Belt." 



LFoliated schist. 

East bank Motucka River. -i 
Havelock to Birch Hill Ferry. Jj 

(a.) Magnesian rooks. 

(c.) Apbanite, breccia, &o. 

Mount Richmond to Ben Nevis; 

Upper Devonian to 

i {a.) Te Anau Series. 


In the east, red and 

Tc Anau. 

(b.) Slates and sandstones. 

mouth of Pelorua River to Ben 

Lower Carboniferous. 

(a.) Serpentine Belt. 

Nevis; runs north-east and south- 

grey grauwackes, with 


Upper Triassio. 

west through the district. 

Maitai System -| 

bands of limestone. 
To the west, fossili- 


Red and green clay- 
stones, with highly 

(b.) Limestone and cal- 



Grey and green sand- 

Lower Jurassic. 


(c.) Maitai limestone and (in the main) 

Saddle Hill to Gordon's Knob. 


(b.) Maitai Series with contemporaneous 

ferous sandstones and 

careous slates. 

stones, green and dark- 

rocks of the " Mineral Belt." 


* Brook Street Igneous Rocks. 


(c.) Maitai slates, red and 
green, interbedded 

i Triassio. 

blue slates, greenstone 

(6.) Brook Street Valley beds. 

Brook Street Valley. 

tuffs, conglomerates, 

{a.) Maitai slates. 

Maitai River to Gordon's Knob. 


base. Serpentine dyke 
of Dun fountain , with 

with sandstone. 

Brook Street Igneous 
Rocks, and the Serpen- 
tine (altered syenite or 


(6.) Slates and sandstones. 

[a.) Conglomerate. 

Eighty-eight Valley. 
Eighty-eight Valley. 

Permian. T 

/Kaihiku Series. 
I (Permo Triassic.) 

and lodes of copper- 

diorite of " Mineral 
Belt "). 


(d.) Lower conglomerate. 

Wairoa Gorge (Sellens). 

Wairoa Series. 

Pvroxeue-porphvry of 

(c.) Psioidca beds. 

[Eighty-eight Valley], Wairoa Gorge 

(Lower Triassic.) 

Brook Street Valley. 

(b.) Mytilus jJ'obhmaliois beds. 

[Eighty-eight Valley], Wairoa Gorge 

C Middle Triassic. 

Hokonui System-/ 

(a.) Monotis sandstone. 

[Eighty-eight Valley], Wairoa Gorge 


Riehmoi d Sand- Ferruginous sandstone 


(c) Nautilus or plant bods. 

[Eighty-eight Valley], Wairoa Gorge. 


Otapiri Series. 

Intrusive rocks of " Mi- 

Late Mesozoic or 

i-tone. with Monotis, &o. 

[b.) Spirifcrina beds. 
(a.) Tcrcbratula beds. 

[Flighty -eight Valley, soutb-west side.] 

[Lighty-eight Vulley, south-west side.] 

- Upper Triassic. 

(Upper Triassic.) 

neral Belt." 

early Caino- 

Jeukins's Coal-mine at 

Older Tertiary. 


Nelson Coalfield. * 

Oligooene or 


(c.) Conglomerate and coal-beds. 

Bishopdale, Jenkins Coal mine. 


Enner Glyn. 


\b.) Marly greensands. 


\ Crotacco-Tertiary. 

(a.) Chalk marls. 

Bishopdale, Jenkins Hill. 


[Articles on sneceedinri formations not published. See, 

Port Hills Series. 


Arrow rock syenite con- 
glomerates. Green 
sandstone with large 
blocks of syenite. 

Upper Miocene. 


(c.) Port Hills Be<ls. 
[b.) Pcctunculus beds, 
(a.) Gravels. 

Cliffs at entrance of harbour. 
Wairoa Gorge, lower end. 
Port Hills, Nelson. 

,!■ Lower Miocene. 

however, " The Qeolugtj of Nciv Zealand," 1910.] 

Jenkins Hill. 


Highly inolined fossili- ' Younger Ter- 

Conglomerates, with 

feruus strata on the 


seams of lignite and 

cliffs about Nelson. 

brown coal. Moutere 

Older gold drifts. 

[(b.) Lignite beds. 

Upper Motupiko River.] 

1 Upper Miocene. 

Moutere Gravels. 

j Upper Miocene. 

(a.) Gravels of Moutere Hills. 

Moutere [and Waititi] Hills. 

Drift and Terrace Periods . 

(<.*.) High-level gravels. 

Wairoa Gorge [Wairau Valley], 

1 Recent and Pleisto- 


, — Moutere Hills, coast- 


Post Glacier Deposits. 

{b.) River alluvium ; plains. 

Waimea Plain [Wairau Vallev]. 

ward deposits, and j 

[(a.) Raised beaches. 

Beach Road and Happy Valley] 

J cene. 

Boulder Bank. 

Intruded Plutonio 

Felstones, Syenite, Elvan 



Dykes, Brook Street 

Igneous Rocks. 

iLSot— Goo. Bull. No. 12. 

i l.ii'ti'.'liiits do not c 

Mtbin tbe Sutxlivis 

[Tu face p. 13. 


The gravels of the Moutere Hills were placed by Hochstetter in the upper part of 
his post-Tertiary Series — the alluvial deposits of the Waimea Plain, &c, being ap- 
parently considered Recent. 

Subsequent Observers. — Subsequent observers have, without obtaining many fresh 
facts, apparently agreed with Hochstetter in separating the rocks to the east of the 
" Mineral Bell " from those to the west of it as unconformably older. Generally the 
name of "Te Anau " is applied to those rocks which, owing their inferior position 
with respect to the Maitai Series, are frequently regarded as being of Devonian age. 

Between the western margin of the " Mineral Melt " and the eastern boundary of 
the Tertiary or Cretaceo-Tertiary coal-measures, Hector and McKay distinguish three 
distinct series — the Maitai, the Kaihiku, and the Wairoa. 

Collections of fossils from the limestone at the inner end of the Wairoa Gorge 
(Wairoa limestone) caused Hector to class this stratum and the associated Maitai slate3 

with the Carboniferous,* although McKay mentions the frequenl presence of remains of 
Inoeeramus in the formation. 

Hi. tor and McKay did not recognize the Kaihiku Series within the area under 
consideration, but found it well developed a few miles farther south in Eighty- 
eight Valley, where they Bhowed it bounded on either hand by two remarkable faults.! 
From palseontological resemblances to rocks in Otago, a Permian age is assigned to 
the rocks in question by these observers. 

'I he Wairoa Series- apparently the Richmond sandstone of Hochstetter is retained 
by all subsequent observers in the Triassic. Some years ago Mark} stated that the 
Maitai rocks lie conformably above the Triassic sediments, and that their age is 
Jurassic, hut he has sinee returned in great measure to the classification of Hectoi 
and McKay. § 

The coal-bearing beds, which appear in a discontinuous hand between the Mesozoic 
rocks and the gravels and silts of the Waimea Plain, are placed by Hector and McKay 
in their Cretaceo-Tertiary system; by Mutton an Eocene or Oligocene age is assigned 
to them. | Mutton and Mark separate the Porl Hills Beds from the coal-bearing beds, 
and consider their age to he Upper Miocene. 

The various classi Heat ions of the post -Tert i ary and Mecent formations are sub- 
stantially the same, and. owing to the absence of palseontological data, are rather incon- 

The rocks of the " Mineral Melt " are regarded as intrusive by Hector, but McKay 

is doubtful about this point. 1i 

The Brook Street igneous rocks appear to be considered by all observers subse- 
quent to Hochstetter to In- contemporaneous with the Maitai rocks, though in McKay's 
map and section- thej are apparently classed with the Te Anau (Devonian). 

Tabular Comparison of Classifications. 

The table facing this page summarizes and compares the views of the principal 
writers on the geology of the Dun Mountain Subdivision. 

•H.-p. <;.s.. ls7s-7<>. p. 33. tRep- ,; 8., 1878-79, section C.C., opp. p. LOO. + Trans., 

vol. xxxvi, 1!H)3, p. 433. { New Zealand Mines Record, vol. xii. No. lOj-'p. 43.",. ||Trans., 

vol. xxii. p. 387. « IJ.-p. i. s .. |s78-7!», p. loll. 




The Maitai Series 
General Distribution 


Period of Folding 

Petrology and Detailed Distribution . . 


Fossiliferous Shaly Mudstones, Sand- 
stones, and Grauwackes 


Subdivision of the Series 
Age and Correlation 


The Jenkins Hill Series . . . . 22 


Distribution . . . . . . 22 


Structure . . . . 22 



Petrology .. .. ..23 

Conglomerates . . . . 23 

Sandstones, Shales, and Mudstones 23 


Limestone . . . . 23 


Coal .. .. .. ..23 


Palaeontology . . . . 23 
Age .. .. .. ..25 


The Moutere Gravels . . . . 26 


Nature and Distribution . . 26 


Arrangement . . . . 26 
Petrology .. .. ..26 


Age .. .. .. ..27 

Recent Rocks . . . . 27 

The Maitai Series. 
The Maitai Series consists of a great succession of conglomerates, sandstones, grau- 
wackes, argillites, shaly mudstones, and limestones, with which is associated a local 
development of contemporaneous igneous rocks.* 

The Maitai locks cover the greater part of the eastern half of the subdivision. 
They have been separated by previous investigators into two, three, and even five 
different series, representing a range in time from Devonian to Jurassic. The writers 
of this bulletin consider, however, that the evidence at present available favours the 
grouping of all the rocks concerned into one series. The younger rocks of this series 
are proved by palaeontological evidence to be Jurassic, while the older, which are con- 
formable with these, may be Triassic, but the authors found no evidence that any of 
the Maitai rocks in this area are of pre-Triassic age. 

General Distribution . 
The Maitai Series covers an area of about 113'30 square miles within the subdivi- 
sion. On the west the series is bounded by a line running from Botanical Hill, in the 
Town of Nelson, in a south-west direction along the base of the Richmond and Hes- 
lington hills to the south-western corner of the subdivision. Except for the break in 
their continuity, which is due to the intrusion of the rocks of the " Mineral Belt," the 
Maitai rocks extend from their western boundary to the eastern limit of the subdivision. 

Folding. — The Maitai rocks are nearly everywhere highly inclined, and bent into 
a series of sharp folds. The dip is usually at a high angle, and is sometimes vertical, 
more particularly in the neighbourhood of anticlinal axes. In general the strike varies 
between N. 25° E. and N. 60° E. The strike bends somewhat round the margin of the 
" Mineral Belt " in the Tee and Serpentine valleys, and also shows some variations 
near the axes of anticlines and svnclines. but these variations affect onlv a small thick- 

! The Brook Street igneous rocks, which are further discussed in Chapter III. 

2b accompany Bullatrrv Wf2. Dint'Moittiiajr, Subdivision, Mot 'upr.Ao Div is ioJt, Nelson Land, District 

Bf Authority : Jthn Maofcuy, Qovtmmtnt Prlntrr. 


ness of rocks. The anticlines and synclines arc extremely sharp, and along tlieir axes 
the rocks are slightly shattered and penetrated by veins of quartz, which have re- 
cemented them. In two cases the anticlines were observed to pitch to the north-east at 
angles of 1U° to 20°. Five anticlines and six synclines are seen in section between the 
mouth of the Wairoa Gorge and the " Mineral Belt " of the Lee Valley. 

The observations made by the writers seem to show that the rocks of the Maitai 
Sei'ies in the Dun .Mountain Subdivision hare been folded into an anticlinorium, mainly 
occupied now by the intrusions of the " Mineral Belt," and into a synclinorium lying 
to the west of the anticlinorium. In that part of the subdivision lying north and 
north-north-east of Brook Street valley the synclinorium is thrown into about five minor 
anticlines and five minor synclines. In the Pelorus River and in the tributaries enter- 
ing on its left bank the dip is, with the exception of a few very minor folds, easterly, the 
rocks here forming the eastern limb of the anticlinorium. 

Period <</ Folding. — That important movements took place after Miocene times is 
evidenced by the highly inclined and dislocated strata of the Jenkins Hill Series. It 
seems probable, however, that the main period of folding of the Maitai rocks was pre- 
Miocetie, and. in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, may be regarded as 
Upper Jurassic — the period during which it is generally agreed thai the Mesozoic 

rocks throughout New Zealand were folded. 

Faults. — The observations that were made appear to indicate that, with the strik- 
ing exception <>f the Richmond Fault, the region examined lias not been affected by 
faulting movements of any importance. Excellent sections an- exposed for long dis- 
tances in most of the river-valleys, and no fault could be Been bj tlie writers in these 
rock-exposures. The very general alignment of the limestone band, of the "Mineral 
Belt," and of the fossiliferous Maitai rocks of the Richmond and Eeslington hills, 
shows clearly that there are no important planes of rock-movemenl inclined to the 
direction of strike. On the other hand, there is in repetition or suppression ol strata 

ill cross section that cannot be explained by the folding that lias been observed, and 

this s,.,.iiis sufficient evidence that there are few st like faults of any importance. 

Tin faults, tin- escarpments of which are still risible on the western slopes of the 
Richmond Hills*, have apparently but a small throw, ami, though of interest owing to 
tlieir surface topography, probably have little structural importance, 

Petrology and detailed Distribution. 
The sedimentary rocks of the Maitai Series are conglomerates, sandstones, grau- 
wackes, argillites, shah mudstones, and limestones. 

Conglomerates. The western fringe of the Maitais contains in places a great thick- 
>f conglomerate. This conglomerate is found in nearly every one of the streams 

flowing west from the Richmond and Heslington hills, from Orphanage Creek to Pig 
Valley. Small outcrops of conglomerate also occur in the Maitai rocks on the ridge 
east of German Busch Creek, and in Packer Creek about a quarter of a mile north of 
the northern boundary of the subdivision and half a mile west of Wakapuaka Trigono- 
metrical Station. The conglomerates attain their greatest development at the head of 
Garden (Sully, where they are olid ft. thick. They are also exceptionally well developed 
in Piir Valley and Conglomerate Creek (a branch of Saxton Creek). 

Conglomerates are thus found almost continuously along a line running in a north- 
north-east and south-south-west direction, and thirteen miles or more in length. It 
appears probable that these conglomerates represent a number of lenticular bands all 
at nearly the same horizon. 

* See Chapter I, p. 12, under " General Geology." 


About three-quarters of a mile from the trigonometrical station of Fringed Hill, 
and a little to the west of north of it, a conglomerate outcropping on a steep spur over- 
looking and on the west of Groom Creek is more indurated and altered than the rest 
of the western conglomerates, in this respect hearing a much closer resemblance to the 
eastern conglomerates (Te Anau rocks of Hector and McKay) described below. How- 
ever, as this rock occurs nearly on, but somewhat to the south of, the line of the strike of 
the main western conglomerate band, and on the same line of strike as the conglomerate in 
Packer ''reek, ami as it* constituent pebbles appear to belong to similar rock-species, 
the writers are inclined to think that it forms part of the western conglomerate band, 
and, together with the Packer Creek conglomerate, owes its alteration and displacement 
to faulting.* 

Conglomerates are also found near the eastern boundary of the subdivision, in the 
Pelorus River and its left-bank tributaries, in the upper portion of Hacket Creek, and 
in its tributaries Goat and Ben creeks. 

Probably at least two main bands are represented by these different outcrops of 
conglomerate in the east. The stratigraphically upper band occupies the valley of the. 
main Pelorus and its south-western extension, Mates Creek. The lower band occurs in 
the upper portion of Middy Creek and Roebuck Creek, and in the Hacket basin, as 
mentioned above. The lower band has not been noted north of Middy Creek, and in 
general its continuity is much disturbed by the nearness of the " Mineral Belt " in- 

Since the conglomerates just described do not occur at the base of the Maitai Series, 
they might be regarded as supporting the view held by various investigators that several 
series of different geological age are represented. The conglomerate bands seem, how- 
ever, too local and irregular to be the marks of well-defined unconformities, and are 
rather the records of local changes in the conditions of sedimentation. 

The eastern conglomerates are usually much more altered and indurated than the 
western ones — probably owing to the influence of the intrusives of the " Mineral Belt." 
Near the head of Middy Creek in particular the conglomerates are sometimes much 
serpentinized. In this same creek, however, only a few chains below the outcrops just 
noted, the conglomerate is found to be but slightly compacted, and, in fact, little altered 
in any way. This preservation of the original characters of the bed is quite excep- 
tional. The eastern conglomerates have a prevalent green tint, due apparently to the 
development of serpent i nous minerals. 

The predominant constituent of the western conglomerates is a red granite. In 
addition to this rock the following other species have been identified : Granite like that 
at Separation Point, hornblende-granite, muscovite-granite, granophyre, granite with 
some granophyric structure, porphyry, rhyolite, syenite, trachyte, diorite, and con- 
glomerate like that found in the Haupiri Series of the Parapara Subdivision.! 

In the eastern conglomerates the constituent pebbles are, as a rule, so much altered 
that it has been found impossible to pronounce on their nature without lengthy micro- 
scopic examinations, for which up to the present there has been no opportunity. 

Fossiliferous Shah/ Mudstones, Sandsto?ie$, and Grauwarkes. — Finer-grained rocks, 
which are fossiliferous, arc associated with the western conglomerates, probably form- 
ing lenticular masses interbedded and practically contemporaneous with them. In the 
field the fine-grained rocks are found both above and below the conglomerates. The 
lower beds are often shaly mudstones, but the upper are sandy, and contain complete 

* The possibility of faulting was suggested by Mr. W. F. Worley, to whom the writers are greatly 
indebted for much valuable information. 

f Bulletin No. 3 (New Series), N.Z.G.S., 1907, p. 46. For descriptions of some of these rocks see Marshall, 
Trans., vol. xxxvi, 1904, p. 467. 


shell-banks of Monotis and Mytilus. Any one shell-hank is not continuous for more 
than a quarter of a mile, but a series of them occurs along- the same line of strike. 
Thus a bank of Monotis shells is found between Garden Gully and the Wairoa Gorge, 
again from the saddle, which the road to the Boding Valley crosses after leaving the 
Wain lea Plain, to half a mile south of the Waimea Gorge, ami again east of Richmond. 

It is remarkable that in the north-east, near the Town of Nelson, where the con- 
glomerates are no longer present, the finer-grained locks become practically unfos- 

Petrologicallj the locks under discussion are grauwackes composed of fragments, 
II' 1 mm. to 1 mm. in diameter, of quartz, feldspar, and augite, with some small plates of 
mica apparently of secondary origin. In colour they vary from black to various shades 
of brown. 

ArgiUites. — As mentioned by Bochstetter, the eastern portion of that part of the 
Maitai Series which lies west of the "Mineral Belt" is formed of much finer-grained 
rocks than is the western portion. These rocks are generally argilliles, though in places 
grauwackes occur interbedded with them. The argiilites split very readily along the 
planes of stratification, and for this reason have usually been tailed the " Maitai slates." 
However, since the splitting is not due to true rock-cleavage, the term " argillite " is 
more applicable than "slate." Ihe rocks are of various hues, bright red and green, 
as well as slaty grey and brown, being seen within short distances. Green and red 
laminations sometimes alternate with one another in an outcrop that appears, when 
veiwed i n masse, to be uniformly red. Microscopic examination shows that the green 
argiilites owe their colour to minute grains of epidote; the red argiilites to dusty 
haematite tilling much of the space between the separate crystal-fragments, which are 
of precisely the same nature as those of the grauwackes described above. 

Fossils are extremely rare in the argiilites. and appear to be entirely absent except 
in those rocks that are more or less of a calcareous nature. 

Limestones. The Maitai limestone of Hector is a band which separates the argii- 
lites from the " Mineral Belt." Though, arcally considered, this band is quite narrow, 
the nature of the rock causes it to form conspicuous cliffs in the Maitai, Ftoding, United, 

and Champion valleys, where the\ cut through it. In the Hacket Valley the limestone 
is very poorly developed, and it is not Been in the Serpentine and bee valleys, but 
occurs on kittle Hen Nevis, just south of the subdivision Part of this rock is argil- 
laceous, and highly betid. The fossil remains in the limestone are not varied. 

Another band of limestone noted by He. lor and McKay is situated at the junction 
of the Boding ami Wairoa rivers. In this fossils were found tiiat were considered by 
these two geologists to justify the assigning of all the eastern Maitai rocks to the Car- 
boniferous System This limestone shows gradations into argillite when followed in 
either direction along the strike. 

Two other bands of limestone occur in the Maitai Series. One of these is at 
Sellen's, in the Wairoa Valley, six miles from the Boding junction, and the other is 
on the Stream, one mile above its junction with the boding. 

Limestone agreeing in general characteristics with the bands just described occurs 
in titu in Lankow Creek, about 10 (bains above the point where the stream enters the 
Waimea Plain, and also, as loose rubble, on the slopes of the Richmond Hills on either 
side of Lankow Creek. No fossils were obtained from this limestone. It is possibly at 
the same horizon as the outcrops described in the preceding paragraph. 

In hand-specimens the Maitai limestone appears blue-grey or nearly white. The 
darker-coloured specimens usually contain a large proportion of non-crystalline argil- 
laceous matter; the lighter-coloured rocks are almost pure crystalline limestone. 

2 — Dun Mountain. 


Bencatli the microscop the Wairoa limestone is found to be composed of fragments 
uf Inoceramus shells of every size. The finer portion consists of separate prisms and 
parts of prisms. There are, i i • addition, a tV-\ very small grains Of quartz. The Lime- 
stone mentioned as occurring in the Lee Valley lias exactly the same character. All of 
these limestones, or in some places the calcareous argiliites that are associated with 
them, contain fragmentary remains that are classified as Inoceramus. This at least 
suggests that all the limestone-outcrops are of the same age — a conclusion which is sup- 
ported In stratigraphical evidence. The section A-A shows that the limestone-outcrop 
on the is on the same horizon as the Wairoa limestone. The strike of this limestone 
followed across the subdivision passes almost precisely through the outcrops at Trigo- 
nometrical Station <> on the Heslington Hills, in the Miner Valley, in the Champion, 
United, and Roding valleys, on Wooded Peak, and in the Maitai Valley, thus corre- 
lating all of these outcrops with the Wairoa limestone, which is associated with the 
fossiliferous strata of Trias-Jura age. 

The occurrence of Inoceramus fragments in such numbers, if correctly identified, 
- far to justify the correlation of these strata with the Middle Mesozoic era. 

The following analyses show the range in composition of the Maitai limestones: — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) .. 

Ferric oxide (Fe a 3 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 


Organic matter. . 

Alkalies and undetermined 

100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 

Xo. 1 is a general sample from the outcrop on the ridge between the Miner and 
Roding livers, near the head of Stratford Creek. 

Xo. '2 is a sample from the limestone cliff on the Champion Track. 

Xo. '4 is a specimen from the south end of the limestone cliff on the United Tram- 

Xo. i is a specimen from the north end of the limestone bluff on the United 
'1 ramway. 

Pain ontology . 
The fossils here described were obtained for the most part from the western fringe 
of the Maitai rocks. In most cases the specimens were unsatisfactory. It is quite 
seldom that any remains of the shell are to be seen, and many of the fossils have suffered 
from earth-movement and are distorted. 

The rocks are not uniformly fossiliferous. When fossils do occur they are almost 
restricted to a comparatively narrow belt on the extreme west of the Richmond and 
Heslington hills, and are seldom found more than half a mile from the Waimea Plain. 
The worm-tracks and the obscure remains which have always been called Inoc'eramus 
are exceptions, for they are found at intervals almost to the border of the "Mineral 

The fossils of this district appear to be very similar to those of the Triassic rocks 
of Xew Caledonia.* 









0-80 i 
1 35 , 








52-40 1 




0-15 1 

Nil i 








* Bernard — L'archipel de la Nouvelle-Caledonie ; Paris, 1894 : and Gamier — Geology of New Caledonia, 
Annates des Minor., 1837. 


Wooded Peak, showing the Well forested N ■. i nil Cointio where composed of 

Mai i m Rocks. 


Dux Mountain and the Upper Waters of the South Maitai Stream, showing Sparseness of 

Vegetation on the Mineral Belt. 
Geo Bull. No. IS.] [To fact /m</e 18. 


Foraminifera. — Mr F. G. Gibbs has given the writers several specimens from 
Fringed Hill near Nelson which contain a few species of Foraminifera. Ihese are 
firmly imbedded in a hard rock, and it lias been found impossible to expose them 
sufficiently for identification. 

Anthozoa. — A fragment of a small "blanching coral'* is very occasionally to be 
found, but nothing more than the impression of this organism was obtained. 

Vermes. — Hochstetter obtained several specimens of trails of worms from cal- 
careous slates of the Maitai Scries, and all subsequent observers have found trails of a 
like nature. Although these marks arc numerous, no decision has been arrived at as to 
the organism that made them. 

Ineertce sedis. — Davis* and subsequent observers have referred to remains of Ino- 
eeramus in the calcareous shales exposed in the cuttings of the Dun Mountain Tramway 
on Wooded Peak. They were assign, d to Inoceramu* because of the very marked pris- 
matic structure that the fragments of shell displayed. No specimen approaching com- 
pleteness was found, though fragments were very numerous. In collections- made by 
tha writers, specimens of this problematical form were obtained from at least eight 
different localities from the limestone of the Wairoa Gorge and from rocks in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Nelson The fragments vary in thickness from J. in. to \ in., 
in length from 1 in. to •'! in., and all have a most pronounced prismatic structure. In 
most cases two layers of prisms are distinct, one on each surface. The fragments are 
often quite small but exceedingly numerous, and constitute whole masses of rock. The 
organism they represent was certainly extremely brittle and fragile, for the rock in which 
they are imbedded is very fine-grained and calcareous, and was evidently deposited under 
very tranquil conditions. Fossil remains that are apparently quite similar to the above 
have recently been described from the limestone of the Cretaceous formation of (Queens- 
land. Chapman lias classed these as / non-raw u<,\ but the structure of the shell shows 

that it might equally well represent Pinna. 

Brachiopoda. — The brachiopods are extremely hard to identify or describe with 

any certainty. The material obtained consists of casts ami impressions, and it is 

thought that their exact classi lieat ion should 1).' left to a specialist, or at hast to a 

palaeontologist who has a great variety of types for comparison at his disposal. Hector 
alone lias hitherto attempted to classify the brachiopods of these and similar rocks in 
Nevi Zealand. A summary of his opinions is given in a paper published in 1878. J 
lb creates tine.- new genera — namely. Psioidea, Rastelligera, and Clavigera—&nd refers 
other specimens to Trigonotreta, E pithy r in, Spiriferina, and Spirigera. At least three 
species of Spiriferina are undoubtedly present, and there ar, several of Terehratula, but 
there does not appear to lx- sufficient reason to class any of these with Dialasma [Epi- 
thi/ris), as was done by Hector. Psioidea appears to be a Terebratula, and Clavigera 
is wry doubtfully distinct. Rastelligera is perhaps a Spiriferina. It is therefore 
very doubtful whether the genera suggested by Hector are necessary, but until his 
original specimens are available for comparison it is unwise to make more definite 
statements than thes . 

Spirigera wreyi (Zitt.) w is described by Zittel from the series under consider- 
ation, and the description and figure allow of very definite identification of the speci- 
mens of this species. 

Although complete identifications and descriptions of these brachiopods cannot 

at present be undertaken, the statement can safely be made that the large number of 
Terebratula and Spiriferina form- shows that the locks are not older than the Middle 

* Rep. G.8. during 1870-71. p. 206. + Journal Royal Mic. Society, 1910, p. 1. + Trans., vol. xi, p 537. 

2* — Dun Mountnin. 


Mesozoic. The majority of the brachiopod remains are found on the extreme western 
fringe of the Maitai rocks— that is, in the lowest series of rocks of the whole formation. 

'I lie limestones of the Wairoa Gorge were referred by Hector and McKay to the 
Carboniferous system because Spirifera bisulcata and Productus brachytharus were 
found there. No specimens of these brachiopods were found in the limestone by the 
writers, the only species obtained from this bed being Spirigera wreyi. 

Pelecypoda. — Monotis salinaria, var. richmondiana (Zitt.) : In certain localities 
the rock consists of a mass of casts of this fossil. Monotis occurs abundantly on the lower 
western slopes of the hills facing Richmond, the eastern side of the crest of the saddle 
between the Waimea Plain and the Aniseed Valley, on the line of strike of the beds in 
the saddle at spots about half a mile north and half a mile south respectively of the 
Wairoa Gorge, and in numerous angular slipped boulders in Hart, Hodson, Target, 
and Reservoir creeks, a short distance above their debouchment on the Waimea Plain. 

Hah, Inn lomelli (Wissm.) : Specimens of this were not found south of the Wairoa 
Gorge. Impressions of the shell are abundant in fine-grained friable rocks at several 
places on the south side of the gorge. The rocks lie about 600 ft. below those with 
Monotis remains. .Many specimens of Terebratula and Spiriferina were found with the 
Halobia. Mr. F. G. Gibbs gave the writers one specimen of Halobia lomelli from the 
Fringed Hill near Nelson. 

Gryphcea sp. occurs rarely in the Mytihis beds. The two specimens obtained by 
the writers are large (Sin. by 4 in. and 4 in. by -"Uin.) but highly imperfect. They 
are, however, easily recognized by the curved form and the rugose irregular lines 
of growth. 

Trigonia sp. : Two small casts, one of them 1 in. by 1 in., and two fragments of 
impressions, were found. These occur in the lowest Mytilus beds, and a little lower in 
the series. The specimens are too imperfect to justify the writing of any specific 

Mytilus problematieus (Zitt.) is very abundant at certain horizons, especially at the 
western entrance to the Wairoa Gorge and in place-; along the line of strike south-east 
of the trigonometrical station M.H. (Mount Heslington). A second bed is almost in 
contact with the limestone at the eastern end of the Wairoa Gorge, and one specimen was 
actually found in the eastern side of the limestone. 

Astarte: A specimen was figured by Zittel, but its imperfect nature did not justify 
the use of any specific name. Four examples of this were obtained, but they are of 
different sizes, and only one has any shell-matter now remaining. The most perfect 
specimen measures If in. by \\ in., but the umbo is, unfortunately, broken off. 

Gastropoda. — A large fragment of a cast of a gastropod was found in the Mytilus 
bed at the entrance of the Wairoa Gorge. It is not possible to refer it with any certainty 
to any genus. The cast measures 1 in. by h in. A cast of a much smaller species 
appears to be that of a Pleurotomaria. 

Cephalopoda. — A fragment showing an impression of the sculpture of some organism 
quite similar to Broncoceras manile rillei* (Marshall) was found in the Mytilus bed. 

.McKay reports! finding a bed containing remains of Nautilus, but search for this 
organism at the points indicated by McKay proved fruitless. The specimens of Belem- 
nites otapiriensis (Hector) which were obtained by McKay from the same beds are not 
represented in the collections made by the writers of this bulletin. 

* Specimens of the fossil named thus have b?"n classified bv Zittel as Proclydonautilus. 
t Rep. G.S. during 1878-79, p. 118. 


Mr. Bryant, of Brightwater, found a large ammonite on the crest of Mount Hesling- 
ton in the MytUus bed. It measures (i in. from the centre to the margin, is \\ in. thick, 
and is strongly involute. It belongs to the Phylloceratidce, and probably to the genus 

Vertebrata. — In. the sandstone occurring in the hills east of Spring Grove some 
bones were found, which on examination proved to be four ribs. The portions ex- 
posed are 9 in. long, I J in. wide, and a in. thick. The cross-section is dumb-bell- 
shaped. The ribs are undoubtedly of saurian origin, but the absence of vertebr;e and 
other characteristic bones does not allow of their further classification. 

Subdivision of //n Series. 

Tlir observations of the writers of this bulletin have failed to reveal any uncon- 
formities in the Maitai Series, which is for this reason regarded as a single system in 
this report. 

As shown in the table facing page 13, Hector and McKay divided the rock- 
series, here called the Maitai, into four systems of Triassic, 1'hatic, Permian, Car- 
boniferous, and Devonian age; Button, with certain reservations, included the rocks 
in the Tria88ic and Carboniferous; and Park formerly classed them as Jurassic and 
Tr iassie, but now considers them Carboniferous and Triassic. 

A perfect section of the Triassic and Carboniferous rocks of Sector and McKay is 
exposed along the sides of the W'airoa Gorge, but no unconformity can be detected 

The rocks found to the east of the " Mineral Bell " ar«' those classed as Devonian 
by Hector and McKay. Their most distinctive characteristic, according to these geolo- 
gists, appears to be a prevalent green colour. However, the rocks in the western por- 
tion of the Maitai Series have locally this greenish tint, more especially on the western 
side of Flaxmoor, where there is a coarse conglomerate, in which the green colouring 
is very prominent. Although, therefore, the Maitais to the east of the " Mineral Melt " 
may actually lie at a lower horizon than those to the wot. there seems to the writers 
to be no sufficient reason for regarding the rocks as forming two distinct series. 

Af/r fintl Con rial inn . 
The Maitai sediments have been used by Sir .lames Hector as a basis for some 
important parts of the fabric of New Zealand stratigraphy, and the fossils thai are 
contained in them have been employed for purposes of correlation with European geolo- 
gical systems. Spirifera hi sulcata (Sow.) ami Productus brachytharus (Sow.) were 
recorded from the limestone at the inner end of the Wairoa Gorge. For this reason 
the limestone and all the eastern portion of the Maitai Series- that is. as far east as 
the " Mineral Belt'' — were classed as Carboniferous. Folded grauwackes and argillites 
in many parts of this country were correlated with these BO-called Carboniferous rock? 
on account of (heir petrographical resemblance, and hence the major mountain-forming 
series of rocks in New Zealand were classed as Carboniferous. This was contrary to 
Hochstetter's opinion, for he had previously classed all the sediments north-west of 
the " Mineral Belt " as Triassic, and those to the south-east of it as Palaeozoic. Hutton, 
who originally classed th • Maitai Series as Mesozoic, afterwards, in deference to Sector, 
but with much protest, assigned jt to the Carboniferous. More recently Park classed 
all the Maitai sediments between the Wairoa limestone and the " Mineral Belt " as 
Jurassic, because he stated that stratigraphically they overlay the Triassic. In his 
latest utterance on the subject, however, Park returns to the classification of Hector and 

* Hem Zealand Mines Record, vol. xii, No. 10, p. 435. See also "The Geology of New Zealand," pp. 5ft 52. 


It must always be recognized that it is an extremely difficult matter to correlate 
the geological formations of distant countries with one another. This is particularly 
true if one of the countries occupies, or lias occupied, an isolated position. These re- 
marks apply with special force to New Zealand, and it is therefore rash to institute 
any comparison in the hope of establishing an exact correlation of .the geological strata 
of New Zealand with those of other countries. The following enumeration of those 
fossils found in the Maitai Series which in other countries are considered to be charac- 
teristic of strata of different ages is of interest, since it shows how great is the difficulty 
of correlating the series in question with formations of known age elsewhere. 

Mo/iot/.s, Halobia, and Spirigera at once indicate that the sediments in which they 
occur should be classed as Triassic. On the other hand, Trigonia, which occurs in the 
lowest stratum, and Gryphcea point as strongly to the Jurassic age. If an exact corre- 
lation is required these possibilities have to be considered: (1.) Is it more likely that 
in this isolated area the Jurassic types would have originated before they came into 
existence elsewhere? (2.) Is it likely that Triassic types lingered on into Jurassic times? 

If the latter view (which seems more satisfactory, especially when the rather Ter- 
tiary aspect of the present native flora and fauna of New Zealand is taken into con- 
sideration) be adopted, the whole series must be called Jurassic, since in the opinion 
of the writers no unconformity exists throughout it. Yet to assign a Jurassic age to 
the Maitai Series, which yields such well-known Triassic fossils as Monotis and Halobia, 
seems hardly justifiable. The more reasonable course is to refrain from attempting 
the impossible in the matter of correlation and to use the compound term of " Trias- 
Jura." The Maitai Series is therefore here classed as of Trias-Jura age. 

The Jjjnkins Him, Series. 
The Jenkins Hill Series consists of a succession of conglomerates, sandstones, shales, 
and mudstones, with which are associated minor beds of limestone and coal. In the 
Dun Mountain Subdivision the series is now exposed at the surface only in a dislocated 
and highly disturbed condition along the western margin of the Richmond Fault (see 
page 12), where its beds have been apparently dragged upwards along the fault-line in 
the manner frequently seen on the downthrow side of a fault. West of its present line 
of exposure the se; ies very possibly extends in a less disturbed condition beneath the 
alluvial deposits of the Waimea Plain. 


The Jenkins Hill Series forms a narrow and broken band extending from Groom 
Creek in the north-east to Church Valley Road, just outside the south-west corner of 
the subdivision. In many places along this line the Jenkins Hill Beds are not exposed, 
or, if exposed, are too much weathered to be distinguishable from the later accumu- 
lations. The largest gap in the band is that between the mouth of the Wairoa Gorge 
and the neighbourhood of Mr. J. Gibbs's prospecting-shaft on Church Valley Road. 
Measured at right angles to its strike, this band attains its maximum width of about 
three miles between the Enner Glyn Mine and the cliffs near the Port of Nelson. On 
the other hand, there are several occurrences of the Jenkins Hill Beds less than a chain 
in width. 


The beds of the Jenkins Hill Series are usually found to dip at high angles to the 
eastward, and thus appear to underlie the much older rocks of the Maitai Series. As 
already explained, this arrangement is thought to be due to the upturning of the edges 


of the beds along the Richmond Fault line.* In the larger exposure in the neighbour- 
hood of Nelson, however, the beds are clearly thrown into a syncline, the relation of 
which to the highly inclined beds of the same age at the Enner < lyn Coal-mine is not 

Pt trology. 

Conglomerates. — The conglomerates arc. as a rule, so ill-consolidated that they 
should rather be called gravels, and arc in places distinguishable with difficulty from 
the Moutere Gravels of later age. 

Pebbles if Maitai argillite are abundant In the Jenkins Hill conglomerates. 
Pebbles ol red or flesh-coloured granitoid rock resembling Mime of the granite pebbles 
found in the Maitai conglomerates occur occasionally, but the number of species rep re- 
ed is by no means so great. If the Jenkins Hill conglomerates were a rewash of 
the Maitai conglomerates we should expect to find the same great variety of igneous 
rocks in the former as in the latter. It seems, therefore, nunc probable that the area 
of red granite from which the constituents of the Maitai conglomerates were in pari ob- 
tained was the only granite mass to which the streams of Jenkins lliil times had access, 
than that the Jenkins Hill conglomerates were formed by the denudation <>f the Maitais. 
ft is noteworthy that pebbles of the basic rocks of the " Mineral Hell " do not apparently 
occur in these conglomerates. 

Sandstones, Shales, and Mudstonas. I he sandstones, shahs, and niudstones are 
fairly soft, well-bedded locks, yellowish or brownish in colour in most dutcrops. The 
sandstones are, where unweathered, bluish-green in colour, and are the most richly 

fossilifel oils roeks ill the series. 

Of meat interest are the large granite boulder 8 which are scattered sparsely through 
the sandstones at the Tor' Hills, t and arc also found in the sandstone in the vicinity 
of Van Dieraen Street. The boulders are commonly 2 ft. 6 in. or more in diameter, 
and are sometimes subangular, sometimes not in the least angular; but even when sub- 
angular their surface, though fresh and unweathered, is smoothed. The writers agree 
with Mr. W. V . Wbrlej in considering that the granite of which these boulders are com- 
posed shows a close resemblance to some of the granites found m situ in the Parapara Sub- 
division.} Hence it is possible that they were originally derived from this locality. 

It would seem, therefore, that during Miocene times a mountain-range existed 
much lowered by denudation, it still exists t.. the north-west of the subdivision, 
and that the climate was sufficiently frigid to allow blocks of ice, bearing boulders of 
granite, to Moat some distance over the sea before melting and dropping their load. 

Limestone. — Only two outcrops of limestone belonging to the Jenkins Hill Series 
have been found in the Dun Mountain Subdivision. In O'Brien Creek, about I chains 
above Glen's Bridge, there is a small outcrop. Another and larger exposure occurs 
on the foothills between O'Brien and Poor Man creeks. The limestone from these 
two places is made up of broken shells, with a few sea-urchin spines mixed with a small 
amount of gravel, sand, and mud. 

Coal. — Descriptions of the coal-seams of the Jenkins Hill Series will be found in 
Chapter iv on pages 6"?-64. 

Pala ontology . 

Collections of fossils were made during the progress of the present survey chiefly 
from the sandstones exposed along the sea-coast a little south of the entrance of Nelson 
Barbour, and from the sand-mudstones in and near Groom Creek, about a mile above 

♦See also section A-B in sh.ct of sections. t Noted by Hutton, Rep. 6.S., during 1873, p. 49. 

t Bulletin No. 3, N.Z.G.S. (New Scries), pp. 71, 72. 


its junction with the Maitai River. A few specimens were also obtained from the 
outcrops of limestone mentioned above, and from the road and railway cuttings in the 
vicinity of Bishopdale Railway-station. With the exception of those obtained along the 
sea-front, the specimens are not in a good state of preservation. 

The list given below includes all the fossils which have been reported from the 
Jenkins Hill Beds at the Port Hills, in Groom Creek, and at the mouth of the Wairoa 
Gorge. The fossils obtained by the writers from the Jenkins Hill Series in other 
localities, being hardly generically identifiable, are not, as a rule, included in this 
catalogue. In the second column are placed the names of the finders of each fossil; 
" B " refers to the authors of this bulletin. 

McKay and Park, in an unpublished memorandum in the possession of the Geo- 
logical Survey, subdivide the rocks of the Oamaru Series (Miocene) throughout New 
Zealand as follows, (a) being the youngest beds and (d) the oldest bed in the series : 
(a) Pareoia clays: (b) Waikouaiti beds; (c) Waihoa greensands* ; (d) Ngapara beds.* 
In the third column of the following list a letter (a, b, or c) placed opposite a fossil 
indicates that it is considered by these authorities to be characteristic of the horizon 
so designated in their classification : — 

I. Fossils from Port Hills. 
Name of Specimen. 


of Horizon. 


Flabcllum laticostatum Ten. -Woods 
F. radians Ten. -Woods 

F. sphenodeum Ten. -Woods 
T rochocyathus mantelli Milne Ed. & H. . . 
Trockocyathus sp. nov. 
Cidaris spines 

Pelecypoda — 

Cucull&a alta Sowerby 

C. ponderosa Hutton 
Limopsis insolita Sowerby 
Glycimeris (Pectunculus) cordatus 

G. globosus Hutton 
G. laiicostatus Quoy and Gaimard 
Ostrea wullerstorfi Zittel 
Pecten wUliamsoni Zittel 
Lima bullata Born (sp.) 
Cardita awamoaensis Harris 
Lucina divaricata Lam 
Cardium sp. nov. 
Dosinia grayi Zittel 
Chione vellicata Hutton 
Teredo heaphyi Zittel 


Dentalium giganteum Sowerby . . 

D. mantelli Zittel 

Gastropoda — 

Solenella australis Zittel 
Imperator sp. 
Sohnotellina nitida Gray 
Cirsotrema browni Zittel 
Capultis (Pileopsu) radiatus Hutton 

* McKay has, however, informed the writers that he considers (c) and (d) to be members of the 
Cretaeeo-tertiarv svstem. 

.. B. 

. . Park. 

. . Park; B. 

. . Park . . 

• (b) 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . Park . . 

■ (c) 

. . B. 

Hochstetter ; 


■ (a) 

. . Hutton ; B. 

. . Park . . 

■ (a) 

Hochstetter ; 


. . Park. 

. . Park. 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . B. 

. . Park . . 

■ (c) 

. . B. 

• (b) 

. . Park. 

. . Park. 

. . B. 

. . Park. 

. . Park . . 

■ (b) 

. . B. 


I. Fossils kkom Port Hills — continued. 

Namo of Specimen. 
( i A sTKOFODA — Coll 1 1 lilt ed . 

Galtrus [Calyptrcea) calyftrmformis Lam. 

Crepidula incurva Zittel 

('. monoxyla Lesson (sp.) 

Siitira iliinriiii (solida) Button.. 

TurriteUa cavershamensis Harris 

'/'. Lmiii in iisis Harris 

Struthiolaria papulosa Martyn (sp.) 

Sl i a! li mlar in sp. 

Trilomum sp. 

Buccimum robinsoni Zittel 

Siphonalia dilatata Q. & G. 

<S. nodosa Martyn (sp.) 

<S. robinsoni Zittel 

Fusus sp. 

ScapheUa [Voluta) corrugata Sutton 

S. grariltcostata Zittel . . 

S. pacifica Lamarck (sp.) 

. InciUa hebera Button . . 

Bullinella (Cylichna) arachis (). & G. (sp 


Ahum aiustralis Mel !oy 

Pisces — 

Lamina incurva Davis 

Mammalia — 

Cetacean bones 


of Horiz in. 





Park ; 

Park .. 





Hochstettex ; Button : B. 


Park; B. 




Bochstettei : Button. 


Park .. 






II. Fossils kkom GbOOD Ckkkk. 

Pelecypoda — 

Glycimeris giobosus (?) Button .. .. . . B. 

I'n h a Bp. nov. . . . . . . . . B. 

Lima (Plagiostoma) lojoigata Button .. . . B. 

L. in nil 1 1 ml uiln Button .. .. . . B. 


I)i niiiliinn giganteum Sowerby 

Gasi ropoda — 
TurriteUa Bp. 


III. Fossils iboh tbm Mouth oi ebb Waikoa Gobgx. 

Pelecypoda — 

Glycimeris [Peetuncuhu) cordatua Button .. Button. 

'■'. giobosus Button . . . . . . Button. 


A study of the known range in geological time of the species enumerated above 
shows thai the Jenkins Hill Series must be included in the upper portion of the Oamaru 
Series of McKay and Park. 

The fossil collections from Groom Creek and other places in close proximity to 
the coal-seams are Dot sufficiently extensive for the institution of a comparison between 
the faunas of these U-ils and those forming the Port Hills. It is noteworthy, however, 
that the easily recognizable forms found in Groom Creek, with the exception of Gly- 
citneris giobosus, have not bo far been found in the Port Hills. 


T H E M U T ]•: R ]■: G R A V E L s . 

Nature and Distribution. 
The Moutere Gravels probably represent the remains of a considerable thickness of 
lluviatile deposits, laid down, when the land stood at a lower level than at the present 
day. by a great river, the source of which lav to the north of Blind Bay, and the mouth 
somewhere to the south-west of the Grey River system.* The beds under consider- 
ation cover an area of about 19'66 square miles within the subdivision. Originally, 
no doubt, they were spread over the whole of the Dun Mountain Subdivision west of 
the Richmond Hills, but have now been removed almost entirely from the eastern por- 
tion of this area, only a narrow and discontinuous fringe being left skirting the base 
of the Richmond Hills from the mouth of the Wairoa Gorge to the Town of Nelson, 
where a somewhat larger area of gravels characterized by a greater relative abundance 
of granite boulders has been preserved mi the surface of the Jenkins Hill Beds. Along 
the western boundary, and in the south-west portion of the subdivision, south of the 
Wairoa Gorge, a much larger area still exists, which has. however, been much dissected 
by Redwood Valley and Eve's Valley creeks and by the flood-plain of the Wai-iti River. 

As a rule the .Moutere Gravels do not show any distinct bedding, though the longer 
axes of the pebbles are most frequently horizontal. On the Port Hills, however, the 
gravels occur filling an old channel cut through the Jenkins Hill Beds, and are steeply 
inclined. As already noted, the gravels of the Port Hills differ from the typical Moutere 
Gravels in the greater abundance of granite boulders. Despite this difference, it has 
been thought advisable to assign them to the same age as the rest of the Moutere Gravels. 
The larger percentage of granite boulders may be accounted for by supposing that 
the gravels on the Port Hills are the detritus brought down by a stream which drained 
the granitic region of Separation Point. 


Ihe beds under consideration consist usually of unconsolidated gravels made up of 
well-rounded fragments varying in size from small cobbles an inch or less in diameter 
to boulders 2 ft. or more in diameter, the beds of coarser fragments being the more 
common. No examples of ice-worn fragments were noted. The matrix is sandy or 
gravelly as a rule, but is sometimes argillaceous and more rarely carbonaceous in 
nature. In general the gravels have a yellowish-brown colour, due to the presence of 
iron-oxide : but in the quarries on the Port Hills, where a fresh surface is exposed, the 
general colour is a dull blue, owing to the presence of a considerable quantity of iron- 

Collections from exposures of the gravels in various places showed that the follow- 
ing varieties of rocks, placed in order of abundance, are represented in them: Grau- 
wacke, often with many quartz stringers; micaceous sandstone, possibly decomposed 
grauwacke ; quartz, often flinty: jasperoid argillite ; quartz schist: breccia of argillite 
fragments in a sandy matrix ; dark argillite : conglomerate of the Te Anau type : 
fossiliferous sandstone of the Jenkins Hill Series; granite; carbonized dicotyledonous 

The most interesting feature of this enumeration is the absence of the distinctive 
rocks of the ''Mineral Belt." It must, however, be noted that a large boulder of 
rodingitet was obtained by the writers on the Wakapuaka Road about three miles and 
a half north of Xelson, from gravels which are thought to belong to the Mouteres. 

* See McKay. Rep. <i.S. during 1892-93, p. 29, &c. 
f For description of this rock see pp. 31-35. 


Boulders of other ultra-basics are reported t<> have been obtained from the same neigh- 
bourhood. It would therefore seem that "Mineral Belt " rocks were already some- 
what exposed in Moutere tinier. 

Mr. W. F. Worley informs the writers, as a result of long and patient observations 
of every outcrop, thai the pebbles and boulders of the lower part of the Moutere Gravels 
are almost entirely of granite. He finds, however, that the proportion of granite 
boulders decreases very rapidly in the upper beds, and that these later boulders differ 
from the fresh hard stones at the base of the series in being very much decomposed and 
frequently quite rotten. Mr. Worley adds, "The rotten granite in the upper Moutere 
Gravels is similar to another rotten granite found in an older* conglomerate lying 
upon tli^- western flanks of Flaxmoor Hill, and was probably derived from a rewash of 
these older conglomer; 

No palseontological evidence is available as to the age of the Moutere Gravels, 

which are therefore temporarily regarded as Upper Miocene in this report, in accord- 
ance with McKay's classification. 

Recent Rocks. 

Tin Waitiica Plain and the alluvial fiats of the various streams of the subdivision 
are formed "I Recent gravels, which consist of boulders of Maitai rocks, ami con 
tain also some representatives of the various ultra basic reeks forming the intrusive 
mass (the "Mineral Belt ") which penetrated the Maitai sediments. The Boulder 
Bank, or, at any rati', tin- upper reassorted portion of it.i the sand-dunes "l the Quaran- 
tine Reserve, and the numerous small talus slopes of the Ricl ad and Heslingtou 

hills, are alsc. included in the Recent rocks. With tin- Recent rocks must also be classed 
two, more specialized, forms of accumulation. 

Tn the slopes df the hills within the area occupied bj the ultra-basic igneous rocks 
sling m,.ss( S of a rough breccia. Usually the blocks and pebbles in this breccia consist 
of ineks I'm m the '•Mineral B<h." hut in several nf the valleys, particularly that of 
tin- Lee, various other types which have been rolled along by the water occur as authi- 
genous constituents. The breccia forms a black resistant rock, the pebbles being 
cemented together by a light-brown material which resists « athering. It is diffi- 
cult to obtain this cemenl free from the included fragments. A sample obtained from 
the valley of the Serpent i ne Creek Bhowed on analysis the following composition: 

Silica (S.O.,) .. .. .. .. .. .. 44-60 

Alumina (AU> :( ) .. . . .. . . .. .. 10-40 

Ferric oxide (rY,o :i ) 1(|()() 

Ferrous oxide (KcO) 

Lime(CaO] .. .. .. .. .. . 2-65 

Magnesia (MgO) .. .. .. .. .. . . 10-83 

Moisture .. .. .. .. .. 21-46 


•nis to approach more closely tu sapniiit ■ than to other hydrous silicates, though the 
content in magnesia is verj h>w for that mineral, and the ferrous and ferric oxides are 

ill e '. 

* Probably of Maitai «^'. See above, p. 21 

t For the two views as to the origin of the BouMer Bank see p. 11. 


A quarter of a mile above the junction of the Miner and the Racket, on the north 
hank of the Miner, there is a considerable deposit of travertine. A spring, flowing from 
the Maitai limestone which here borders the "Mineral Belt," issues 300ft. above the 
floor of the valley. The water is highly charged with bicarbonate of lime, and the 
hill-surface over which it flows to the Miner is covered with a luxuriant growth of 
moss. Successive growths of this plant have been covered with an incrustation of 
calcium-carbonate precipitated from the spring-water. The hillside has in this manner 
been coated for a. height of '500 ft. and a width of 400 ft. with a travertine of an average 
thickness of at least 20 ft. 

Similar travertine-deposits are found in Mill Creek, a tributary of the Maitai 
River, and in the main branch of the Teal River. In both cases the calcium-bicar- 
bonate has been derived from the Maitai limestones in which these streams arise. 

Xv accompany BiiUeliw M 12. 

The Sea 


Sea level 

Section alon g Line A B, Waimea & Maun g ata pu Survey Districts. 




Malta/ Series. 

Conglomerates, breccias, grauwackes. argillites. 

, Limestones 

Jenkins Hill Series . 
[Conglomerates, sandstones, shales.l 
Imudstones. limestones. J 

Section alon g Line C D, Waimea Surv e y District . 

Natural Scale 

Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and S ifcns ■ 




Upper Miocene Moutere Gravels __ |J.°-°>-.°,-.y.| 

Recent J Travertine, surface breccias.l |.- : -. -..'■•. '.'.'.■.'.•I 

[gravels, silts, sands. J '' — 


Tries-Jura Brook St. rocks 

„ _ [Mineral Belt 

rbstTnasxlura| RodJngjte dyke3 

Bh Authority : John fflaokay Government Printer. 







Page P»f?e 

Rocks of the " Mineral Belt " .. 29 Rooks of the " Mineral Belt " -continued. 

Introduction .. .. •• 29 Comparison of the Ultra-basic Rucks, 

Distribution and General Description 29 and Explanation of their Ooour- 

Petrology .. .. .. 30 renoe .. .. . . .'(7 

Peridotdtee .. .. .. 30 Intrusive China .. :fs 

Dunite .. :sn Contaol Effects.. .. .. :*s 

Harzburgit.- .. .. 30 Dykes.. .. .. :»» 

Webeb irifa .. .. . . 30 Age of " Mineral Belt " .. 39 

Rodingite .. .. ..31 Other Intrusive Rooks ..40 

Diabase and Dioriu- .. 35 Brook Streel Igneous Rooks .. ..40 

Serpentine . . . . . . 36 


Thh great ultra-basic intrusion always associated with the name of the Dun Mountain 
development in this subdivision. In general it follows the strike of the 
.Maitai rocks, and is seldom less than half a mile or more than two miles wide. Much of 
this intrusion is now serpentine, bul dunite and harzburgit* constitute an importanl 
pari of it. Dykes of websterite and rodingite are fairly numerous, and along a por- 
tion of its western margin there is in places a narrow fringe of diabasic and dioritic 
rocks. Separated from the eastern boundary of this peridotite ana by a band of 
Maitai argillites aboul a quarter of a mile broad there is a bell of rodingite, parallel 
to the peridotite bul somewhat Less continuous. It lias a maximum \\i<ltli of half a mile. 

D \m> General Description. 

The large mass of peridotites and associated rocks, to which alone, as a rule-, the 
name of " Mineral Bell is applied, Bhows a general north-east and Bouth-west orienta- 
tion in the area under consideration. It is almost continuous from one corner of the 
subdivision to the other, l>ut its boundary is often highly irregular, and the width 

is Beldom more than two miles or less than one-half mile. It has its greatest width — 
3 miles 50 chains —near the Dun Mountain, hut actually disappears for aboul a mile 
between the valleys of the Lee and Serpentine. The area covered by the rocks of the 
'• Mineral BeH " is about 29^ square miles. 

There are many inclusions of Maitai tucks distributed somewhat irregularly within 
the intrusives, bul they are more numerous near the eastern border than the « stein, and 
are particularly abundant towards the headwaters of the Miner and its brand 

Serpentines form the greater part of this intrusion, but there is no doubt that 
they have been formed from peridotites, for there is every intervening grade between 
perfectly serpentinous rocks and nearly fresh harzburgites, while there is also a large 
mass of fresh dunite. All these rocks are in many places penetrated by dykes of 
websterite and of rodingite, a rock that will be subsequently described. 


The intrusive mass of rodingite oast of the peridotites does not vary greatly in 
composition or structure throughout the mass. The intrusion is nearly continuous 
through thai portion of the district which lies in its Line of strike. It is roughly 

parallel to the " Mineral Belt " -that is, to the strike of the Maitai rocks. It lies about 
a quarter of a mile east of the peridotite belt, from which it is separated by argillites. 
The boundary of this rock is not so easy to define as is that of the peridotite, for the 
soil that is derived from the dishftegration of the rodingite supports a forest growth 
which is not always to he distinguished from that growing on the sedimentary areas. 
It extends at least from the River to the Haeket Stream, and may go farther east. 


The name "peridotite" is restricted to those rocks which have olivine as the most 
important mineral, though in some cases the olivine may be more or less replaced by 

Dunite. — The dunites have their most conspicuous exposure in the neighbourhood of 
Dun .Mountain. They consist almost solely of olivine, but in all cases there are grains 
of a spinellid mineral which appears to vary between chromite and picotite. Its 
composition is somewhat more complex than that of either of those minerals, for it 
contains notable amounts of aluminium, magnesium, and calcium. In section its 
transparency is not always the same, but varies from very dark to light yellowish- 
brown. There are occasionally crystals of diopside in the dunite. 

Harzburgite. — No perfectly fresh examples of this rock, consisting essentially of 
olivine and enstatite, were found except in the gravels of the Wairoa River, which 
had transported them from a region outside of the Dun Mountain Subdivision. Within 
the area under review there is, however, a large mass of this rock more or less serpen- 
tinizad. In fact, all of the peridotite belt between the Miner and the south-western limit 
of the subdivision consists of harzburgite, in which, as a result of serpsntinization, 
much of the olivine has been changed to serpentine. The enstatite also has been altered 
to bastite, and the small quantity of spinellid -picotite— is often the only mineral that 
remains unchanged. Like the dunite, this rock is not specially coarse in grain for a 
plutonic rock. 


This rock, which consists entirely of diallage and enstatite, is, within the Dun 
Mountain Subdivision, often extremely coarsely crystallized. Hochstetter states* that 
on the slopes of Wooded Peak cleavage surfaces of " hypersthene," which is almost 
certainlj the diallage of websterite, measure one square foot in area. This rock is de- 
scribed in Piosenbuself s " Physiographie der Massigen Cysteine." It consists mainly 
of diallage, with a specific gravity of 3'198. which is pale green when fresh, but readily 
weathering to a bronze colour In microscopic section it shows good schiller-struc- 
ture. Associated with it occurs in nearly every case the mineral bastite, which, as 
usual, has a very pronounced lustre, and in section is distinguished by its pale-yellow 
colour and its remarkable schiller-structure. The rock occurs in the form of narrow 
dykes in the serpentines, dunites, and harzburgites in almost every part of the " Mineral 
Belt." As remarked before, this websterite apparently is the hypersthene of Hoch- 
stetter, and it is probably the hornblende rock of Davis, and the bronzite of Hector's 
list of minerals. Hutton recognized its true nature.! 

* " Reise der Novara." t Trans., vol. xix, 1880, p. 413. 

PI. ATI'. Y 

I Dunitk, Dun Mountain. Showing Grains of Chromite, surrounded bi Grains oi Olivine 

>: 25. 
•_'. Serpentina Dub Mountain, with Grains of Chromite. s 25. 
3. Harzb iii:, VVairoa River. Showing Picotite(?), with \ [.ahgi Crtstal oi Enstatite 

on the Right. The Rest Olivine, x 25. 
I. Harzburgite, Lee River. Crystal oi Enstatite lndergoing Change ro Bastite. x •_'.">. 

Geo. Hull- No. 

To fact pagi SO 






















3:3 id 





















* Undetermined. 


Tlie t'ollowi n<r analyst's show the chemical composition of the two minerals composing 
the websterite : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

( hromium-sesquioxide (Cr.,0.,) 

Titanium-dioxide (TiO.,) 

Potash (K.,0) | 

Soda (Na 2 0) I 

< larbonic anhydride (CO a ) 

Loss on ignition 

(1.) Bastite from websterite: Long Gully, near Lee Valley. 

(2.) Diallage from websterite: Lone (Jully, Lee Vallev. 

(3.) Rock composed of 75 per cent, diallage and 25 per cent, bastite, the average 

proportions in which these minerals occur in the websterite. Results 

calculated to 1"0 per cent. 

Ihese analyses agree substantially with those "f similar rocks and minerals quoted 
by Dana and Rosenbuscb from other parts of the world. 


Dykes of a coarse-grained gabbro-like rock penetrate the serpentines in many places, 
but are more numerous in the upper part of the Roding Valley than elsewhere. This 
is apparently the rock thai Davis called a true feldspar-porphyry,* and Hochstetter a 
Baussurite-hypersthene ruck or byperite.t rlutton recognized the optical properties of 
the minerals, but called the rock " saussurite-gabbro." In a paper b** one of th<- writers 
it was recently described as a grossularite-gabbro.*J The writers have applied to the 
rock the name "rodingite," owing to the typical exposure occurring on the River 
Roding, the change being considered necessary in view of the following facts: (h Gros- 
sularite cannot be regarded as a feldspathic mineral, the presence of which is implied 
l>v the use nf the word gabbro; (2) the chemical composition shows thai the rock is 
ultra-basic, and should nol therefore be included with the basic gabbros; (3) the high 
percentage of lime in the rock completely distinguishes it from all other ultra-basic 
mcks and demands the us,- of a new nam'-. 

The dykes of the rock are often very coarsely grained. The grossularite, the 
specific gravity of which is 3*502, is whitish with a pale-greenish tint. Having been 
the last mineral to crystallize, it is. when fresh, perfectly free from inclusions of othei 
minerals. The diallage in this rock is identical in optical properties with that in the 
websterite. The high percentage of lime (31*04) and the specific gravity§ appear to 
distinguish rodingite satisfactorily from all other described species. 

A rock which appears to resemble rodingite closely has been described by Judd,j 
from Bingera, as "a dull-green granular rock with a specific gravity of 3*31, which 

•G.S. Reports, vol. <>, 1871. p. 11**.. t" Reise der Novara." % Marshall, Trans., vol. xl, p. :*20. 

§ Usually about 3-40, but varying a good deal, according to the relative amounts of diallage and grossularite, 
between the specific gravity of diallage and that of grossularite. || Mineralogical Magazine, vol. xi, 

No. 50, s,pt.. 1895. 


under the microscope is seen to be made up of crystals of a pale-green garnet. 
So far as I know there is only one [ruck] composed of green varieties of the mineral 
(garnet). This is a rock from Dobschau, in Hungary. This green-garnet rock 

<>f Bingera sometimes contains native gold and also chrysocolla. " 

Lacroix describes as ariegite* a rock from the Pyrenees, which, while showing a 
general resemblance to rodingite, is different from it in that it contains hornblende, 
chromite, and biotite. Moreover, the garnet described by Lacroix is pyrope, not 
grossularite. Lacroix gives the following analysis of ariegite, from which it will be 
seen that it differs from rodingite in having a somewhat higher percentage of silica, 
while the lime-content is much lower and the magnesia-content much higher than in 
the Nelson rock:- — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

44 38 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) . . . . • . . 


Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 


Ferrous oxide (FeO) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Soda (Na 2 0) 


Potash (KjO) 


Loss on ignition 



The coarse-grained structure of the typical rodingite prevented any satisfactory 
analysis being made of a fragment of the rock as a whole. The two minerals! that 
occur in it were separately analysed, and the composition of rodingite calculated 
therefrom, with the following result: — 





Silica (Si0 2 ) 

. 36-05 




Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 

. 25-79 




Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 





Ferrous oxide (FeO) 





Manganous oxide (MnO) 





Lime (CaO) 





Magnesia (MgO) 





Chromium-sesquioxide (Cr 2 3 

) Nil 




Titanium-dioxide (TiO.,) 





Potash (KjO) i 
Soda (Na 2 0) i 





Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 




Loss on ignition 









(1) and (2). Two samples of grossularite from rodingite ; Roding River. 
(3.) Diallage from websterite ; Long Gully , Lee River. 

(4.) Composition of rodingite calculated as formed of two-thirds grossularite 
and one-third diallage. Results calculated to 100 per cent. 

Dykes of a dense, fine-grained, white rock, with a specific gravity of 3'353, are 
quite common in the peridotite belt. The jock has an irregular rhomboidal fracture, 
and appears to correspond with the " Keiselschieferartigen " rock of Hochstetter, who 

* Comptes Rendus, vol. viii, Cong. Geol. Int., p. 807. The writers wish to acknowledge the kindness of 
Professor Bonney, who directed their attention to the resemblance between rodingite and ariegite. 

+ It was found impossible to separate the diallage from the grossularite ; the analysis of diallage 
from websterite is therefore used. 


thought it was an inclusion of the " thonschiefer." Davis apparently classed these 
as felstones and elvanites. One of the writers has previously referred to some of these 
as wollastonite.* Further study has, however, made it (piite clear that practically all 
of these white rocks are a variety of rodingite — a fact clearly indicated in microscopic 
sections, since, except for a small proportion of diallage, the mass of the rock is 
isotropic, lias a high refractive index and a faint brownish tinge when viewed in ordinary 
light. This isotropic material was taken to l>e a variety of <_ r arnet. Analysis showed 
this assumption to be correct. 

The following are analyses of fine-grained rodingite from several parts of the 
" Mineral Belt " : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Chromium-sescfuioxide (Cr 2 < )., 
Titanium-dioxide (Ti(),) 
Potash (K.,0) •• 
Soda (Na,0) .. 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 a ) 
Loss on ignition 
Copper-oxide (CuO) 
Nickel-oxide (NiO) 



















( 6-24 




t 5-18 





•m >■:.-> 













l ■:> 1 



i . . 

















(1.) Dense rodingite from near Trigonometrical Station R.K., Lee Valley. 
(•_'.) From Long Gully, Lee Valley. 

(.'5.) From Code's Point, Dun Mountain Tramway. 
(4.) From Champion Level. Champion Mine. 
(5.) From near Dun Mountain. 

When the specimen '1 was treated with hot dilute hydrochloric acid, 84'62 per 
cent of the rock passed into solution. The composition of the soluble matter was as 
follows : — 

Silica (SiO a ) 

.. 23-68 

Alumina (A1.,0 3 ) 

.. 11-74 

Kerne oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

.. 1714 

Lime (CaO) 

.. 2740 

Magnesia (MgO) 


\\ itei (ICO) 



In addition 5'96 pel- cent, of silica m the residue dissolved when treated with 
dilute caustic potash. The total of the mineral decomposed by the acid is therefore 
90*58 per cent. The residue has nearly the composition of diallage, and the dissolved 
portion has practically the composition of the following molecule: 3CaO \ A1 2 3 \ Fe 2 3 
3gi0 — j. e>j grossularite, in which half of the alumina is replaced by iron. The rock 
is therefore practically a lime-iron-alumina-garnet rock. 

* Trans., vol. xl, p. 322 : " Note on the Gabbro of the Dun Mountain." 
3— Dun Mountain. 


The most remarkable feature of this rock is that though it may contain as much 
as 17 per cent, of iron-oxides it is almost white in hand-specimens and in powder. 

In some specimens of the coarse rodingite the grossularite is traversed by small 
veinleta of a highly birefringent mineral with a medium refractive index. In other 

specimens the garnet is entirely replace'! by this mineral. An analysis showed that 
this replacing mineral had the composition of prehnite. The optical properties also 
agree closely with those of prehnite. The specific gravity is 2'986. The following is an 
analysis of a nearly pure sample : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 


Alumina (A1,0 3 ) 


Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 


Ferrous oxide (FeO) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Water (H 2 0) 



If the magnesium oxide in this analysis is alloted to impurities of serpentine, which 
then amounts to 7'68 per cent., the molecular proportions of the remainder are as 
follows : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Lime (CaO) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Water (H 2 0) . . 


It' 10 per cent, of the rock consisted of undecomposed grossularite, the following 
molecular proportions remain: — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Lime (CaO) 
Water (H 2 0) . . 


This is almost exactly the molecular composition of prehnite, which is 2CaO H 2 A1 2 3 3Si0 2 

It is considered that this analytical and optical result, coupled with the close 
chemical relationship between grossularite and prehnite — a replacement of a molecule 
of lime by one of water — justifies the conclusion that the mineral resulting from the 
decomposition of grossularite is prehnite; and it is a result that does not appear to 
have been obtained in any previous investigations. 

In the whole mass of the intrusive rocks which lie to the east of the peridotites, 
and which the writers have classified as rodingites, prehnite takes the place of grossu- 
larite. Only one specimen taken from this mass contained unchanged grossularite. 
This was obtained in the Hacket Creek, half a mile above the " Mineral Belt." 




1. Coarse-grained Rodingite. Grossularite \i phe Top \m> Bottom. A Band of Dial- 

lage icross the mlddle. x 25. roding rlyer. 

2. The same as |. seen between Crossed Nicols, 

•'!. A \'i;p. \M> Isolated Grains oj Prehnite is Grossularite. Crossed Xicols. s 25. 
Roding RlVER. 

4. Diallage, with Small Inclusion of Bastite froji Websterite. Roding River, x 25. 

Geo. Bull. No. 

To fm < /in,/, : ; 















71 1 















The following are analyses of prehnite-rodingite — (1) from Long Gully, (2) from the 
valley of the Serpentine: — 

Silica (SiO.) .. 
Alumina (AL,0 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Kc-jOj) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) . . 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Potash (K.,0) .. 
Soda (Na 2 0) 
Chromic oxide (Cr 3 3 ) 
Titanium-oxide (TiCX.) .. 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 
Loss on ignition 

100-18 1OO-10 

Occasionally hands of serpentine are found in this eastern mass of prehnite- 
rodingite, ami sometimes there are belts of rock consisting of serpentine and prehnite. 
The composition <>f these rocks is believed to justify their being designated "prehnite- 
rodingite" and " serpentine-prehnite-rodingite." It is thought to Ik- more satisfactory 
to use prefixes to indicate the mineralogical composition of these rucks than wholly 
different names, as they differ from the typical rodingite merely in the presence of some 
secondary minerals, though it is probable thai the serpentine-prehnite-rodingite was 
originally a ruck in which .divine took the place of the diallage in the typical rodingite. 
The analysis of sample t (Lee River) of this ruck, given "ii page 37, shows that it 

contains 56*14 pel cent, of Serpentine, 33*13 per cent, of prehnite, and 10*32 per cent. 

of magnetite. 

In various places specimens of a grey rock are found within the serpentine. The 

rock has a slickelisided surface in nearly every c.ise. It has generally been classed as 

a grey serpentine, hut examination shows that it is for 1 mainly of garnet, probably 

grossularite, with some augite in minute acicular form and colourless in appearance. 
I' also contains some calcite.* The rock is apparently a variety of rodingite. 

The grossularite rocks of the Dun Mountain Subdivision appear to have a special 

interest, as tlay contain neatly twice as much lime as any other igneous rocks of which 

analyses are available. This in itself is sufficient to prove that they are not derived 

by decomposition or by any metainorphic process from more ordinary types, for in such 

lime is in less amount than in the original form of the rock. 

Diabase un<l Dioritt . 

On the western border of the peri dot ites there is in many places a narrow mar- 
ginal belt of rocks of a variable nature. I?i hand-specimens the rocks of this belt are 
usually green and decomposed, hut in many of them crystals of feldspar are distinctly 
visible. The rocks are best sen in the valley of the Roding and its tributaries, hut 

ilso found on Little Ben Nevis in the extreme south-west of this district, on the 
Mokatapu Track and Dun Mountain tram-line, in the North Maitai, and in Beauchamp 
Torrent. They also occur to some extent near the eastern margin of the " Mineral 
Belt." especially in Mahanga and Middy creeks. 

* This appears to be the rock mentioned by Finlayson, Q.J.G.S., vol. lxv, p. 359. 
3*— Dun Mountain. 


Under the microscope it is found that labradorite feldspar is the most abundant 
constituent of the diabase, but it is much decomposed into calcite. The rarer augite 
in rounded grains of moderate size is colourless. Olivine is represented by pseudo- 
morphs of serpentine, and there are many magnetite-grains. 

The diorite varies greatly in coarseness. The feldspar is usually much decomposed, 
but is sometimes recognizable under the microscope as an acid labradorite. The horn- 
blende is often fibrous, and is probably all uralitic in its nature. Iron-ores are repre- 
sented by ilmenite, which is usually changed to leucoxene. 

The following is an analysis of the diabase from peg A, Champion Mine tramway : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . . . . . . . • • ■ ■ 50-10 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 17-96 

Ferric oxide (Fe,0 3 ) . . . . . . . . •• 2-40 

Ferrous oxidef(FeO) . . . . . . . . . . 6-48 

Lime (CaO) . . . . . . . . . . . - 8-25 

Magnesia (MgO) . . . . . . . . . . . - 5-14 

Potash (K,0) . . . . . . • . . ■ • • 3-26 

Soda (Na 2 0) . . . . . . . . 1-31 

Chromium-sesquioxide (Cr 2 3 ) . . . . . . . . Nil 

Titanium-dioxide (Ti0 2 ) '. . . . . . . . . . 1-84 

Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) .. .. .. .. .. Nil 

Copper-oxide (CuO) . . . . . . . . . . . . Nil 

Nickel-oxide (NiO) . . . . . . . . . . . . Nil 

Loss on ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-34 



Descriptions of this rock have been written by Hochstetter,* Hutton,f Bonney,| 
and Finlayson.§ 

In hand-specimens the rock is dense and black, and often shows sheared or slicken- 
sided surfaces. A dark-green colour generally shows on these planes of movement. 

In microscopic slices the serpentine shows the mesh structure due to strings of 
magnetite granules, from which needles of serpentine usually of very small size radiate. 
A feAv grains of chromite are usually present. In many examples even from the Dun 
Mountain there are a few residual grains of unaltered olivine. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the Dun Mountain no other minerals or structures are to be seen in 
the serpentines, but farther south, between the United Stream and the Lee River, there 
is always a considerable amount of a rhombic pyroxene. In many occurrences the ensta- 
tite is relatively fresh, and surrounded only by a narrow rim of bastite. More fre- 
quently the bastite has entirely replaced the enstatite, being particularly conspicuous 
as specks with a metallic lustre in the hand-specimens. This bastite-bearing rock forms 
90 per cent, of the mass of serpentine. 

In various places specimens of a grey rock are found in the serpentine area. At 
the head of Long Gully, in the Lee Valley, and elsewhere in the serpentines near the 
Lee, the serpentine contains small branching veins of a blue mineral never more than 
1 in. in diameter. This substance appears destitute of crystalline structure, and is 
slightly transparent, with a hardness of 1J. In section it is found to be perfectly 
colourless and transparent. It is very freely birefringent in the direction of the 

* " New Zealand," p. 274. f Hutton, Roy. Soc., N.S.W., 1889, p. 155. J Bomiey, Q.J.G.S., 

vol. lxiv, p. 159. § Finlayson, Q.J.G.S., vol. lxv, p. 357. 


extremely thin lung fibres of which it is composed. It shows straight extinction. The 
composition is as follows : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Chromium-sesquioxide (Cr 2 3 ) 
Loss on ignition 


It is obviously a variety of serpentine closely allied bo chrysotile. In many places small 
veins of chrysotile are found. They are particularly numerous between the head of 
Long Gully and Lee River. 

. . 39-65 






. . 35-39 


.. 1311 

Comparison of the Ultra-basic Rocks, and Explanation of theih Occurrence. 

No record can be found in accessible literature <>f the occurrence of rocks of the 
iodingite class in peridotite areas. Certain statements in regard to the rocks of New 
Caledonia by Garnier* suggest thai similar rocks may occur there, though it is per- 
haps unreasonable to suppose that this experienced observer would have passed by 
them without recognizing their peculiar and distinctive characteristics. The most 
noticeable fact is that igneous rocks with the highest percentage of magnesia known, 
but without lime, occur here side by side with rocks that contain the highest percentage 
of lime known, but a low percentage of magnesia. In order to emphasize this fact the 
accompanying table of analyses is quoted : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 
Ferric oxide *(Fe 2 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Chromium-sesquioxide (Cr 2 3 ) 
Titanium-dioxide (Ti0 2 ). . 
Potash (K 2 0) i 
Soda (Na 2 0) \ ' ; 
Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 
Loss on ignition 

































































(1.) Dunite ; Rosenbusch, Uesteinlehre. 

(2.) Serpentinized harzburgite ; Lee River. 

(3.) Websterite ; Long Gully, Lee River. 

(4.) Serpentine-prehnite-rodingite ; Long Gully, Lee River. 

(5.) Rodingite ; Roding River. 

(6.) Dense rodingite ; Long Gully, Lee River. 

* Annates des Mines, tome xii, 1867, p. 66. 


Of these, No. (lj can vary in composition practically froin pure prehnite to pure ser- 
pentine. Nos. (3) and ('>) are also variable, but within more circumscribed limits. 
Such differences can only be explained by one of the following statements : — 

(a.) The magnesia and lime magmas came from wholly independent magmatic 

{b.) The lime rocks are the result of a digestion of some of the Maitai lime- 
stones in the magnesian magma. 
(c.) The two types have resulted from a very complete magmatic differentiation. 

The first of these suggestions is disposed of by the occurrence of serpentine-prehnite- 
rodingite of all intervening types between pure prehnite and pure serpentine. This 
clearly shows that both magnesia and lime were present together in considerable quan- 
tities in some portion of the magma. 

There is no evidence to show that any of the Maitai limestone has been digested. 
The limestone is separated from the peridotite by the marginal diabases and diorites. 
The largest mass of rodingite is always some distance away from the Maitai limestone. 

The suggestion that magmatic differentiation may account for this separation of 
rock-types implies such a complete separation of magnesium-silicate from lime-silicate 
that one may well hesitate before adopting it. There are so many rock-types in which 
these two silicates are mixed together in ever}' proportion that any mutual repulsion 
between the two is hardly possible. 

Any idea of differentiation based upon the relative fusibility of the different mine- 
rals in the rocks or on their specific gravities appears at first sight equally untenable, 
for the one type does not " mantle " the other, nor is there any variation in vertical 
depth so far as can be seen. It is noticeable that dunite and rodingite mixed together 
in equal proportions have a composition not very different from that of websterite. 
The occurrence of various types of serpentine-prehnite-rodingite shows, however, that 
there was some amount of a magma that had an intermediate nature between the two 

In conclusion, it may be staled generally that the ultra-basic nature of both rocks 
suggests a community of origin, and that this idea is supported by the occurrence of 
intermediate types. At the same time, no suggestion can be made as to how the almost 
complete separation of the lime-silicate and magnesia-silicate materials took place. 

Intrusive Characters. 
Contact Effects. 

It would be expected that such a large mass of ultra-basic rock, which presumably 
rose from a great depth within the crust and was therefore at a high temperature, 
would have an important, contact effect on the surrounding sedimentary rocks. It is 
found, however, that this is not the case. The Maitai limestone, which is in many 
places the nearest member of the sedimentary series to the peridotites, is but little 
changed — a finely crystalline structure being the main result. In the Serpentine Valley, 
where red argillites are in contact with the peridotite, the change has been far more 
marked. Not only have the stratification-planes become obscured and the lock far more 
solid and resistant, but a new set of minerals has been formed. The crystals of these 
are very small, but are believed to be andalusite and feldspar. 

The grauwackes are much less altered than the argillites; in fact, there are prac- 
tically no mineral changes to be seen with the microscope. However, the stratification 
is, as was noticed by Hochstetter, completely lost. The comparative absence of mineral 
change is very striking when it is remembered that several patches of grauwacke not 


Dyke of Worn Rodingite 10 in. thick in Serpentine below 
Lower Adit of Champion Mine, Champion Creek. 

Weo. Z?u//. A/o. m] 

Dyke of Fine-grained Rodingite 1ft. 10 in. 
thick in Serpentine. South-west Side of 
Champion Creek, 15 Chains from Adit of 
Champion Mine. 

[To face pngc -t.9. 


more than .30 yards in diameter are completely surrounded by the peridotite. The 
grauwackes are similarly unaffected by the intrusion of rodingite in hong Gully district. 

The margin of the great intrusion of ultra-basic rocks is somewhat regular on the 
north-west boundary, but even here there is considerable divergence from the direction 
of strike, especially in the portion between the Serpentine and Lee rivers. The irregu- 
larity of the margin is especially great where the intrusion breaks across the strike, for 
long tongues of peridotite continue in the direction of the intrusion, but they are 
separated by masses of argillite. This serrated end of the mass is a form that would 
be more likely to be assumed by an intrusion that penerated strata lying vertically than 
by one that was forced into a horizontal rock series. If the intrusion id' the " Mineral 
Belt " rocks occurred when the strata of the Maitai Series were horizontal, then these 
intrusives would have been subjected afterwards to the tectonic movements which brought 
about the tilting and folding of the Maitai rocks. There is, however, in the " Mineral 
Belt " rocks no sign of mineral change resulting from stress, nor is there any develop- 
ment of cataclastic or schistose structures. 

The generally coarse-grained plutonic structure of most of the ultra-basic rocks 
is in itself sufficient evidence of the fact that they have solidified under conditions 
aormal to intrusive magmas. 

A.s mentioned before, inclusions of slightly altered sedimentaries are common in 
the peridotite, especially in the upper part of the Miner River. It is only between 
the Maitai and the Miner rivers, on the western side, that the boundary of the intrusive 
rocks appears to conform with a plane of stratification. Elsewhere the boundary of 
the intrusion is curved and irregular. 


On the eastern side of the peridot ites, dykes of serpentine are quite frequent in the 
argillites, and vary considerably in size. No dykes were seen in the argillites to the west 
of the peridotite belt. The presence of dykes clearly proves that the peridotites were 
intruded into the argillites. 

Dykes of rodingite, line and coarse, are very common in the peridotites. The 
coarse-grained examples are far more abundant in the neighbourhood of the Roding 
River and its branches than elsewhere, but the fine-grained dykes are of general occur- 
rence in the peridotite belt. No dykes of rodingite were found in the argillites. The 
actual boundary of the rodingite mass situated to the east of the " Mineral Belt " could 
not be clearly followed because of the thick growth of the vegetation, but the mass un- 
doubtedly widens and narrows irregularly. 

Age <>f " Mineral Belt." 

From what has already been said it must be evident that the intrusive rocks are 
younger than the Maitai sediments. The age of these sediments has already b^en stated 
to be Mesozoic and probably Trias-Jura. The Miocene sediments nowhere contain any 
fragments of serpentine or other ultra-basic rock, though they are found in regions 
where at the present time the recent deposits contain abundant fragments of these rocks. 
Though much of the material of the Moutere Gravels was probably derived from the 
area of older rocks within this subdivision, yet only one fragment of the ultra-basic 
rocks has been found in them (see page 26). It would thus appear that the peridotites 
were but slightly exposed at the time of the deposition of the Moutere Gravels. 

From the facts cited above we may therefore conclude that the time of the intrusion 
of the " Mineral Belt " rocks was later than the time of folding (Upper Jurassic) of 


tlie Maitais, and thai the ultra-basics were apparently but little exposed by erosion before 
Recent times. 


In Saxton Creek a dyke of feldspar-porphyrite, having in places rather the 
character of an augite-andesite, occurs cutting the Maitai rocks. This dyke outcrops 
in two places — namely, about 10 chains above and 8 chains below the mouth of Con- 
glomerate Creek. The intrusion is, where exposed, not more than 8 ft. or 10 ft. in 
width, can be traced for only a few yards in a north-westerly direction, and does not 
seem to have had any metamorphic effect on the surrounding sadimentaries. Whether 
or not this dyke belongs to the same period of intrusion as those rocks considered in 
the preceding section is quite unknown. 


A dark-green rock occurs in the Maitai Series near its western front in the neigh- 
bourhood of Nelson. Amygdules of secondary minerals occur abundantly, and much 
of the rock is tufaceous. These facts prove that the rock is the product of volcanic 
action, contemporaneous with the deposit of the Maitai sediments. This so-called 
greenstone forms the conspicuous " sugar loaf " hills and the greater part of Flaxmoor 
Hill close to Nelson on the south-east side. Botanical Hill and a considerable area in 
its neighbourhood, but lying mainly outside the northern boundary of the subdivision, 
are composed of similar materials. Hochstetter called the rock an augite-porphyry, and 
the name was adopted by Davis and also by McKay. The rock in microscopic section is 
found to be tufaceous for the greater part, but where less clastic it is still amygdaloidal, 
and consists mainly of small grains of augite, and feldspar (labradorite) microlites, with 
serpentine apparently derived from olivine. The tufaceous portion contains some frag- 
ments of glassy matter and rather large crystals of augite. The presence of these 
minerals shows that the rocks were originally basalts and basalt-tuffs, in which the 
olivine has been serpentinized. The name " melaphyre " is usually employed to designate 
an altered olivine basalt, and will be so nsed on a later page. 

Note to Chaf. III. — Hutton, on page 156 of the Trans. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 1889, in his paper on "The 
Eruptive Rocks of New Zealand," refers to cumberlandite from Dun Mountain. This rock is not mentioned 
by Rosenbusch. It is given in L^x. Pet. Inter. Con., 1900, as a pallasite containing iron-oxide. Pallasite 
is a meteoric iron with olivine. 

2b accompany Bulletin, N?12, DiiiiMountnij-i Subdivision . MotupiJre Division .Tfclscn Land, District. 




Between Champion Creek and Dun Mountain 

Scale of Chains 

— Reference to Geolo g ical Colours and S igns - 


Probably \ M *' tsi Series. [ == 

Trias- Jura iConglomerates.breccias.grauw.3ckes.argiliites.--. bz _— __ 

Recent (Travertine surface b 

(gravels, silts, sands 

-, .-, (Mrneral Belt 

rostTnao-_h_ra1 H ,. . , . 

(nodinqite dykes 

Copper lodi. : & deposits 
Chrome lodes u 


By Authority : John Mackay, Government Printer. 





Introduction . . . . 41 

Gold .. .. .. ..42 

In Alluvium . . . . 4- 

1 ii Quartz Wins . . . . 42 

( topper . . . . . . 43 

Situation and General Description of 

the Copper Bell . . .. 43 

Mineralogical Character of the Copper- 
ore . . . . . . 14 

Gangue-minerals associated with the 
Copper-ore . . . . ..II 

Rocks associated with the Ores .. i- 

.Mode of Occurrence <>t the Copper-oref I • 
History of the various Efforts to mine 

( lopper-ore . . . . . . 45 

Detailed Description ol the vari 

Copper-deposits . . . . 46 

Occurrence al "The Wood,' Nelson Hi 
Deposits in the Dun .Mountain 

Area . . . . . . -Iti 

The Duck fond Lode .. 48 

Saddle Lode . . .. . . 48 

.Mount Claude West Lodes .. 4!) 

Jackson Lode . . . . 49 

Imperial Lode . . . . . . 4'.i 

Monsti r Lode . . . . . . .">() 

Head of Chromite Creek .. .. 51 

Johnston's United .Mine .. .. ">i 

The United Mine . . ..51 

Development ol .Mine . . . . 51 

Mineralogical Character of the Ore 52 
Description oi Shoots of Ore and 

Analyses . . . . ,~>2 

The Champion Mine .. .. 55 

Development of Mini .. ."ib 

Mineralogical|Character of the Ore ■"><> 
Description offshoot oi On and 

Analyses . . . . . . 56 

Quantity of.Oie and Future Pro- 
spects of Mine . . 58 

Copper — xunii mil ■/. 

Detailed Description of the various 
Copper-deposits— tout mm d. 
Metallurgical Treatment of the Ores 
of the United and Champion Mines 
■ I] igin of the Copper-ores 

Situation and General Description of 

the ( hromite Belt 
Distribution of Chromite deposits in 
other Parts of New Zealand and else- 
Mode of Occurrence of the Ore 

Mineral ( 'haraeter of I he ( lie 

History of ( Ihromite-mining in the Dun 

Mountain Subdivision 
Description of the various Propertii s. . 

Deposits iii the Neighbourhood oi 

Dun Mountain 
Deposits near Jackson Saddle 

Deposits on the Miner Stream 
Deposits on Chromite t 'reek 
Deposits in Serpentine Valley 
Deposits near Little Hen Nevis 
i (] tgin Of the Ore 


Distribution oi Coal-bearing Rock 

Mineral ( haraetei . Associated Rooks, &C. 

Bistorj oi Coal-mining in the Dun 

Mountain SubchA ision 
Detailed Description of Principal Oc- 
The Brook 
Enner < !lyn 

Poor Man Creek to Church Valley 
Proposed Site, for Dei p Exploration.. 
• mi nt Materials, Building-stone, &c. .. 
Limestones and ArgiUites .. 








I 2 






The Dun Mountain Subdivision has. been known since the early days of the Do- 
minion's settlement as the home of ores of copper and of chromium, [formerly both of 
these were shipped in small quantity, and until quite recently inconsiderable amounts of 
copper-ore were being mined. Gold exists very sparingly in the copper-lodes, in quartz 
veins, and in the alluvium derived from the widespread Moutere Gravels already de- 
scribed. There are exposures of coal-bearing rocks within the subdivision, and seams 
of coal were worked in the late " fifties," at the time of the visit of Hochstetter.* The 
building-stones of the Dun .Mountain Subdivision occur in inaccessible localities, but 
in the future these, as well as the cements which might be derived from the local lime- 
stones, claystones, and argillites, may be utilized for architectural purposes. The 
mineral wealth of the subdivision may be described under the following headings: Gold, 
copper, chromium, coal, cement-materials, and building-stones. 

* See " New Zealand," 1867, p. 82. 


In Alluvium. 

Gold in the nativt stale is of widespread occurrence in the Moutere Gravels, which, 
as remarked in a previous chapter, outcrop prominently in the western part of the 
subdivision. So far, however, the precious metal has not been found anywhere in 
payable quantities, though hue colours can be panned in almost every creek flowing to 
the Waimea from the west through the Moutere Gravels. The colours are obtained 
both from these gravels direct and from the debris derived therefrom in the stream- 
bottoms. As a result of systematic prospecting conducted in the Moutere Hills within 
the limits of the subdivision it is thought highly unlikely that deposits of any great value 
will ever lie found. The Moutere Gravels, in which occurs the widely disseminated and 
very hue gold, were probably deposited by an ancient river, of which the current was 
too swift and the force of water too great to permit of the concentration of rich patches 
on the bars. Furthermore, probably the Moutere Gravels never contained enough gold 
to give, even after reassortment by the modern streams, any rich patches. The most 
encouraging prospects found by the writers were in the upper part of Eve's Valley Stream 
and in the neighbourhood of Bronte Stream. 

A microscopic examination of the heavy residues derived from washings in Eve's 
Valley Stream exhibited, in addition to gold, only quartz and feldspar. A similar inves- 
tigation of like material from a creek entering the sea between Bronte Creek and 
Stringer's House displayed crystals of quartz, red garnet, chromite, ilmenite, and zircon. 
A chemical analysis of this heavy material showed the presence of the rare earths to the 
extent of 0'2 per cent. No attempt was made to separate the thoria, ceria, yttria, &c. 

Although, the time being midwinter, the Pelorus River was unusually high, and the 
most likely places inaccessible during the writers' examination, a few " colours " could 
nearly always be got by washing the silt retained by moss or in the cracks of the rocks. 
It seems possible, therefore, that payable returns might be obtained by working the 
gravel bars and low alluvial flats in summer, and it is surprising that so few attempts 
to do so have yet been made. 

Gold was not found in the streams entering the Pelorus on its left bank — i.e., from 
those which drain the eastern margin of the "Mineral Belt " — but is evidently brought 
down from the mountains to the east. These mountains were also the main source of 
the gold of the Wakamarina diggings. 

" Colours " weie also obtained from Sharland Creek above its junction with Packer 
Creek. It seems probable that this gold has been derived from small stringers in the 
Brook Street igneous rocks. No economic value need be attached to this find. 

In Quartz Veins. 

Quartz veins, generally merely stringer; a few inches wide, occur more or less 
prominently wherever the basement series of the subdivision outcrop. They are 
especially conspicuous in the neighbourhood of Mount Starveall, in the Pelorus Valley, 
and in some of the small mountain-gullies entering O'Brien Creek from the Richmond 
Hills. No vein of payable auriferous quartz was discovered by the survey, and it is 
thought unlikely that prospecting for reef-gold will ever meet with success within the 

A definite, well-demarcated quartz vein outcrops on the tramway leading from the 
srnelting-works to the United Mine, in the Aniseed Valley. The vein has a maximum 
width of about 4 ft. near the tramway, where it disappears beneath the debris and the 
material of which the tramway is constructed. From this point it narrows in ascend- 


ing the hill, and is traceable in this direction (N. 1j° E.j for about '1 chains. Some 
■"i or -1 chains to the south of the tramway on the opposite side of United Creek a small 
stringer of quartz is seen, which may represent a continuation of the vein in that 
direction. The vein, which occurs in diabase, dips eastwards at ."1.")° or 60°. Several 
leaders of quartz are to be seen in die foot-wall of the main vein. The quartz, which 
is generally whitish and opaque, or rusty, contains a large amount of irompyrites, 
generally coarsely crystalline. Former assays made from specimens collected from 
this vein gave traces of gold and silver, hut those made from samples obtained bj 
the writers gave negative results. The quartz was used as a flux in the reverbera- 
tory furnace recently built by the Maoriland Copper Company (Limited) in the United 

A short distance east of the vein just described another and smaller quartz lens 
outcrops in a cutting on the tram-line on the right side of United Creek, jusl at the 
bridge. The vein, which shows but Tin. in width of stone, and is traceable for 
only a few feet, strikes X. 1.")° K., and dips at an angle of 59° to the east. lite vein- 
material is mainly hungry quartz, hut there is some pyrite on the hanging-wall. An 
assay of the vein-stone gave the following resull : Gold, 2gr.; value per ton, Id. ; silver, 
8 dwt. 18 gr. ; value per ton, 8d. : total value per ton, Is. The enclosing walls of the 
vein are apparently diabase, Lut this is in places silicified and otherwise mineralized. 

• if tin' two following analyses. No. I is an analysis of the normal but more or less 
oxidized enclosing rock: ami No. '_' of a hard whitish rock, which is possibly silicified 
and otherwise altered diabase, occurring as a narrow hand a I'.-w inches below the 
foot- wall : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (Al_,().,) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Potash (ICO) .. 
Soda (NajO) .. 
Titanium-dioxide (TiO_,).. 
Ignition loss 

It 10-08 10040 


Situation and General Description of the Copper Belt. 

Ores of copper have been found in a belt of 1 e or less serpentinized basic and 

ultra-basic rocks for a distance of at least fifty-five miles between D'Urville Island 
and the Wairoa River. Generally speaking, the belt is visibly conspicuous owing to 
the starved appearance of the scanty vegetation which clothes it (see above, page 5), 
and because of the characteristic brown or dun colour to which the rocks weather. 

Within the limits of the Dun Mountain Subdivision the copper-ores occur almost 
entirely in hilly and somewhat inaccessible parts. There are at least fourteen known 
occurrences on the slopes of Wooded Peak, near Dun .Mountain. The Duck Pond lode, 
the Saddle lode, the Mount Claude West lodes, the Jackson lode, and the Imperial lode 
are situated either on Mount Claude or on its slopes. The .Monster lode and the United 
Mine are both in the United Valley, about three miles apart. The Champion Mine 
is on the Champion Creek. There is a deposit at the head of Chromite Creek, and 
























the old Johnston's United Mine is situated on Serpentine Creek. In addition to these 
occurrences, which are more or less definite deposits in the belt of serpentinized rocks 
(the "Mineral Belt"), minor rusty patches, showing stains of copper-carbonate or 
irregular plates of native copper, may be seen in places. Such small patches were 
observed on Mount Claude, near the deposit mentioned above, on the Miner Stream, 
and elsewhere. 

Traces of copper in melaphyres (of the Brook Street igneous rocks) have recently 
been found in Hoffman's quarry at " The Wood," Nelson, which, however, is just beyond 
the northern boundary of the subdivision. 


Apparently the original copper-bearing mineral of the lodes of the Dun Mountain 
Subdivision consisted of cupriferous pyrrhotite, containing traces of gold, silver, cobalt, 
and nickel. Though this pyrrhotite has disappeared by oxidation on the surface ana 
visible portions of many of the deposits, it is almost invariably present where develop- 
ment has cut the lodes beneath the surface, and in depth becomes the predominating 
mineral. With it occur in variable quantity the following copper-bearing minerals : 
chalcopyrite, native copper, malachite, azurite, cuprite, chrysocolla, and possibly diop- 
tase. Chalcocite is mentioned by Sir James Hector as occurring, and tenorite has been 
reported by another observer, but is not certainly present. With these are associated 
the ferruginous products of oxidation of the pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, magnetite, 
various hydrous oxides, such as limonite and gothite, and apparently haematite and 
melanterite. The pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite when associated together are usually so 
fine-grained that it is almost impossible to separate them. Not only the pyrrhotite, 
but apparently the chalcopyrite as well, is magnetic even at ordinary temperatures. 
Cuprite is not a common mineral, and where it occurs is found as crusts associated 
with native copper. Azurite is very rare, but malachite is common both as earthy 
stains and coatings and as tufts of acicular prisms filling cavities in the oxidized ore. 
Chrysocolla occurs occasionally in earthy opal-like patches. Malachite, azurite, chry- 
socolla, and cuprite are confined to the gossanous outcrop, and do not, with the excep- 
tion of the Champion Mine, extend for more than 50ft. from the surface." The 
associations of (1) cupriferous pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite, and (2) cupriferous pyrrho- 
tite and native copper, are the common types below the outcrop, and extend downwards 
below the present water-level. The paragenesis of the minerals, as judged from examina- 
tions of polished specimens in reflected light, shows that the pyrrhotite is undoubtely 
the oldest mineral in both combinations, and that both native copper and chalcopyrite 
have been subsequently introduced. 

Gangue-minerals associated with the Copper-ore. 
In addition to the iron-bearing minerals mentioned above, the gangue portion 
of the ore consists mainly of serpentine, which appears in various colours — light 
grey, green, black, and stained rusty brown, or various shades of pink and red in 
the oxidized surface ore. Rodingite, and the products derived from its alteration, 
occur with some of the lodes, as will be observed from the descriptions below. Calcite 
and hydro-magnesite are found in places coating the old workings on the lodes, and 
occur to a limited degree in the lode-material. Crystals of aragonite were found in 
vugs in connection with several of the deposits. A very little quartz is seen, from a 
microscopic examination, to occur with the ore. 


Rocks associated with the Ohes. 

All the lodes, including the small occurrence of copper-ore in the melaphyre quarry 
at "The Wood," cut basic or ultra-basic rocks which arc .mure or less altered. In the 
immediate vicinity of the " Mineral Bell " lodes a much-shattered serpentine pre- 
dominates. Beneath the microscope this rock is usually found to consist almost entirely 
of serpentine; but in some places it contains a spinellid mineral allied to chromite and 
picotite. Less-altered peridot ites, diabases, ami diorites are found close to the ore- 
bearing serpentine, and rodingite, generally much changed, is of common occurrence 
near or actually with the ore itself. 

Mode of Occurrence of the Copper-ores. 
The copper-ores occur in small and scattered lenses, which are invariably incon- 
siderable in both horizontal and vertical extension. The width of the lenses is subject- 
to sudden and marked variation. Tims a lode which may show several feet of ore 
at one point may pinch out altogether within a yard, and the lode-channel he replaced 
entirely by barren serpentine. The lodes apparently follow shear-zones in the enclosing 
rocks, and, with the exception of tin' deposit at "The Wood," lie close to the pu ml 
where the serpentinized peridotites merge into the diabases and diorites. The latter, 
as remarked in an earlier part of this report, represent the margin of the igneous rocks 
at their point of contact with the sedimentaries. 

History ok the various Efforts to mine Copper-ore. 

There have been so many attempts to make a financial success .if mining the copper- 
deposits in the Dun Mountain Subdivision that it will be quite out of the question to 
give a complete history of all these undertakings in the limited compass of tins bulletin. 

Apparently to Mr. W. L. Wrey, who formed a company in London in 1855, was due 
the lirst attempt at mining the copper-ores and chrome-ores of tin Dun Mountain. 
Mining on the various small deposits in that locality was continued intermittently with- 
out success until 1865, when the company ceased operations, after baving expended 
£72,000 in tramways, mine-buildings, and general mine-development. 

To Mark Stratford is said to he due the honour of discovering the gossan of the 
United lode, and to his brother, Fred Stratford, of finding the large chunks of native 
copper which originally formed the capping of the Champion lode These discoveries 
were made about 1880, and, soon after, development of the two properties began under 
separate managements. Somewhat later the owners of the two mines amalgamated to 
form the Champion Copper-mining Company, which started smelting in 1885, and 
about 30 tons of matte are said to have been exported. 

About 1884 a syndicate known as the Imperial Consols Company, consisting of 
Nelson gentlemen, was formed to develop the Imp. rial lode on Mount Claude. In 
1886 or thereabouts the Champion Copper-mining Company ceased operations, and for 
the next twelve vears there was hut little development of the copper prospects in the 
locality. Then, in 1898, came the formation of the New Zealand Copper Estates Com- 
pany (Limited) to control all the copper prospects on Dun Mountain and Mount Claude, 
the Monster property (which had been prospected to some slight extent previously), the 
United Mine, and the Champion Mine. This company became merged in the Mineral 
Belt Copper Company, which carried out considerable development-work in the United 
Mine and on the Monster lode, and prospected the various lodes on Mount Claude. In 
1906 the last-mentioned concern went into liquidation, and was succeeded by the Maori- 
land Copper Company (Limited). Under this company a progressive development cam- 


paign was carried on, especially in the Champion and in the United, and a reverberatory 
smelter erected. At the beginning of 1909 the Maoriland Copper Company (Limited) 
was replaced by the Copper Development Company ('Limited), the operations of which 
have so far been limited to the exporting of ore already developed by its predecessor. 

Johnston's United lode, in Serpentine Creek, was discovered about 1S62 or 1863, 
and soon after operations on a small scale were started thereon, hist by Mr. Everett, 
of Nelson, and later by J. H. and W. H. C. Johnston. Work was carried on inter- 
mittently on the property up to a few years ago, but mining operations have now 
ceased. The small copper-deposit at the head of Chromite Creek is said to have been 
discovered in the early "seventies." 

Detailed Description of the various Copper-deposits. 
Occurrence at " The Wood,'" Nehon. 
In the quarry, in decomposed melaphyre, from which the metal for the roads is 
taken, occur tiny stringers of quartz, stained green by copper-carbonate, and contain- 
ing bunches of cuprite and native copper. The occurrence is of scientific rather than 
economic importance. A sample of the copper-bearing rock picked free of visible copper 
gave the following result on analysis: — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Iron-oxides (FeO, Fe 2 3 ) 

Lime (CaO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Ignition loss 

Alkalies and undetermined 



Copper .. 015 

Deposits in the Dun Mountain Area. 

As the writers did not in all cases know the names by which the various small 
deposits of ores of copper occurring in the Dun Mountain locality were designated, 
they have used numerals preceded by the chemical symbol for copper (" Cu ") in order 
to distinguish them on the map from the chrome-deposits of the same locality. 

Cu I. — Code's Point deposit is a thin lens of ore about 60 ft. long and of un- 
certain width, which strikes at about N. 46° E. and dips at a very high angle to the 
westward. On the outcrop small heaps of rusty gossan are stained green with copper- 
carbonate, with which is associated much magnetite. During the period when mining 
operations were carried out in the Dun Mountain, in the " fifties " and in the " sixties," 
some explorations in the shape of opencuts and a drive and a shaft were carried out, 
but the ore was not found to live below the surface. About £22 worth of ore is said 
to have been sent from this deposit to .Australia. A representative sample of the 
o-ossanous ore on the surface gave a result of O'Sl per cent, of copper, but the quan- 
tity available probably does not exceed a few tons. The sample also assayed 1 gr. of 
gold, 1 dwt. 5 gr. of silver, and 0"01 per cent, of cobalt to the ton. 

Cu II. — Here is an old collapsed drive which apparently ran in a general direction 
of N. 31° E. The drive is said to have been run originally to cut a chromite lode, but 
small patches of copper were cut alongside the chromite. A few fragments of spongy 


limonite heavily charged with malachite and containing a good deal of magnetite are 
lying near the entrance to the drive, and are said to have been derived therefrom. 

Cu III, nr the "Old Horse."-— This consists of a curious half-moon-shaped lens of 
rusty serpentine, containing only traces of copper. It is very small, being only about 
4 ft. long, but a considerable amount of ore, mainly native copper, is said to have been 
taken therefrom. 

Cu IV. — Here is an old collapsed drive, which runs about S. 75° W. The country 
rock is serpentine cut by seams of rodingite. In the selvages in the serpentine and in 
the rodingite occur tiny lenses and facings of copper minerals— malachite, azurite, 
chrysocolla, cuprite, and native copper, ami also possibly a little melaconite. 

Cu V, the Black Oxide Lode. — The lens occurs in greyish, very shaly serpentine, 
associated with rodingite. Its length is about 14 ft., it has a maximum width of about 
I ft. -'Sin., and consists of rusty serpentine, stained with copper-carbonate. Much black 
oxide is said formerly to have been taken from this deposit, but as the material there- 
from is also said to have become very hot when stacked in bags, it was most likely 
sulphide, not oxide. 

Cu VI. — An old ami small tip-head occurs here showing mainly shaly serpentine, 
but with a few fragments of rich cupriferous gossan lying on the surface. 

Cu VII is probably in line with the last, and may be the same. A cut shows shaly 
serpentine ami rodingite, with a tew fragments of malachite-bearing gossan lying on 
the surface, hut no lode is visible. 

Cu VIII. — Here an incline shaft is sunk on the dip of a very irregular lens of 
gossanous serpentine containing patches and stringers of malachite in small quantity. 
Where widest on the surface th< gossanous rusty serpentine shows for 1 ft. .''.in. across 
the dip. The lens is traceable for 1G ft. 7 in. along the strike in a direction of N. 37° W. 

Cu IX. — Here is a small test pit showing a few stains of malachite. 
Cu X. — A drive cut in the serpentine bere could not he entered, as it was tilled 
with water. The tip head shows only rtlstv serpentine. 

Cu XI.- -An old ami neatly vertical shaft is sunk about loft, (probably originally 
to ;i greater depth) in the rusty shattered serpentine. There is do definite lode, hut 
patches of malachite appear in the rusty serpentine for about lit. across the strike, 
which seems to he about north and south. 

Cu XII, Hatty's Shaft. — Here a shaft is sunk 8 ft. 6 in. (the depth was originally 
more, but the shaft is now practically tilled with debris) in a band of rust 1 ) gossanous 
serpentine showing malachite-stains. 

Cu XIII. — A surface-test pit now shows only rusty serpentine, hut some rich ore is 
said to have been taken therefrom. 

Cu XIV, Hatty's Drive. — This drive, which is untimbered ami in good condition, 
shows a small lens of pyrrhotite, and chalcopyrite at about half a chain in from the 
entrance. The lens is about oft. wide at its greatest dimension, and is traceable for a 
distance of about G ft 

Cu XV, Wintrip Lode. — Here the drives are all collapsed, and no ore is now visible 
except tin 1 rare fragments of malachite or copper-bearing pyrrhotite on the tip head. It 
is said that about •''. tons of ore from this locality was shipped to Newcastle, and that 
some good material was left beneath the ground, it being impossible to remove it owing 


to the sliding nature of the country 
analysis the following results: — 

Fragments of the ore lying <>n the surface gave on 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 


Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 


Ferric oxide^(Fe 2 3 ) 


Lime (CaO) 


Magnesia (MgO) 


Copper (Cu) 


Nickel (Ni) 


Sulphur (S) 


Carbonic anhydride (C0 3 ) 


Water and organic matter 


Alkalies and undetermined . 



Gold (per ton) . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 gr. 

Silver ( ,, ) 

1 dwt. 21 gr. 

It will be seen by the above brief description of the various copper-bearing deposits 
occurring in the neighbourhood of Dun Mountain that they are all quite negligible 
from an economic point of view, being merely lensoid pockets lacking both horizontal 
and vertical extension. The indications seen in no ease warrant further development. 

The Duck Pond Lode. 
The Duck Pond lode runs in a general direction of N. 10° E. It consists of a lens of 
very shattered serpentine, with small patches and streaks of copper-bearing ores, for 
about 3 ft. or 4 ft. across the strike, and for 5 ft. or 6 ft. along it. The ore, which 
occurs only in very small quantities, is of fair quality, consisting mainly of malachite 
with magnetite, cuprite, and pyrrhotite. An old open cut and several collapsed test-pits 
occur either on the lode or on the line of its continuation. A representative sample 
across the centre of the copper-bearing lens gave on analysis the following result : — 

Gold|(per ton) 

Silver ,, 

Copper (per cent.) . . 

Iron ,, 


Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) 

15 gr. 

5 dwt. 16 gr. 




The sample, being too small, was not examined for platinum. 

Ores of mercury are reported to have been found in this lode, but it is thought 
that cuprite was mistaken for cinnabar. 

Saddle Lode. 
Here lenses of rusty gossanous serpentine, showing rare stains of malachite, appear 
for a little over a chain with a general strike of about N. 20° W., but the lode is not 
continuous. The greatest width observed was only 2 ft. 3 in., and in general it averages 
much less. The quantity of gold and silver contained in the ore is greater than 
is generally found in the lodes of this district. In the following analyses, No. 1 is of 
gossanous material showing little or no copper-green, while No. 2 is of the richer 
cupriferous ore occurring only in very limited quantity : — 

Copper (per cent.) 





N ckel and cobalt (per cent.) 
Gold (per ton) 
Silver „ 

I 0-01 
. . 4 dwt. 2 
. . 1 dwt. 21 

g r - 

12 dwt. Ugr. 
14 dwt. 14 gr. 


Mount Claude West Lodes. 
In this Ideality there are two distinct lenses of ore, which have been numbered 1 
and 2. No. I is traceable for about 40 ft. Its entire width is nowhere visible, though it 
is undoubtedly inconsiderable. On No. 2 a little surface prospecting has been done, and 
a shallow test-shaft about 9 ft. deep has been sunk on a lens which is traceable for about 
35 ft., and has a maximum width of 7 { in. No. ] seems to strike about N. 5°W., 
and Xo. 2 about N. 39° E., while the dip is in both eases apparently vertical. The 
enclosing rock of the two lenses is a greyish jointed serpentine, and the ore consists of 
serpentine stained with malachite and azurite, and containing in addition cuprite, 
chrysocolla, magnetite, and much hydrous iron-oxide. The quantity of ore available is 
quite unworthy of consideration. Picked specimens of ore from the two localities gave 
the following results on analysis : — 

Gold (per ton) 

Silver ,, 

Copper (per cent.) 

Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

4 gr. 
2 dwt. 8gr. 

1 dwt. 4 gr 



I it )2 


Jackson Lodt . 

Hire, as at Mount Claude West, there are two lenses which are probably on the 
same mineral zone. No. I consists of two streaks of mineralized material separated by 
about 10 ft. of barren serpentine, and strikes at about X. 55° E. The most south- 
easterly streak is traceable for 24 ft., and is only about 1 ft. in width, while the other, 
in which a shallow test-shaft has been sunk, is visible for only about 18 ft. Appa- 
rently the shorter of these streaks dips at a somewhat flatter angle than the longer one. 
The ore consists entirely of rusty gossan with rare stains of malachite. Xo. 2 lens 
appears in shattered grey serpentine at intervals along -\ general strike of N. 5°E., 
and dips west at 7. y °. At the widest pari approximately 2ft. — of the lens a test-shaft 
has been sunk to a depth of about 12ft. 8 in. Ore of fair quality to the amount of 
aboul 2 or ■'! tons is lying on the surface. The ore consists mainly of hydrous iron 
oxide with malachite, azurite. possibly some copper-oxides, chrysocolla, and magnetite. 
Fine hair-like malachite occurs in geodes. Representative specimens of the ore from 

No. 1 lens and from Xo. 2 lens were analysed, anil gave the following results :— 

Gold (per ton) 

Silver „ 

Copper (per cent.) 

Iron ,, 

Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) 

It will be seen that Xo. 2 lens contains much the richer material of the two. However, 
there is probably only a very limited amount of ore of this quality. 

Of all the lodes in the Mount Claude portion of the area being described, Jackson 
lode alone seems worthy of further exploration, ami even it does not warrant the out- 
lay of any considerable amount of money. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

1 gr. 


15 gr. 

7 dwt. (i gr. 







Imperial T.o<h- . 

On this lode a tunnel has been driven about 90 ft. below the outcrop on the hill- 
side. Only shattered, dark-coloured serpentine now appears along the walls of the 
drive, but it is thought that some cupriferous pyrrhotite appearing on the tip-head 
may have been taken therefrom during excavation. About 25ft. above the top of the 

4 — Dun Mountain. 


tunnel a rusty band of much Blickensided and shattered serpentine some 5 ft. wide 
contains about 2 ft. 8 in. of malachite ami chrysocolla. The stains of copper-green are 
visible for about 24 ft. in the steep and partly artificially excavated slope, but the deposit 
exhibits very little horizontal extension. The quantity of ore is quite negligible. The 
typical pyrrhotite of the Imperial lode carries 1'51 per cent, of copper, while a rich 
picked specimen of the green ore (malachite and chrysocolla) proved on analysis to con- 
tain the following material: — 

Copper (per cent.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 41-36 

Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) . . . . . . . . 0-15 

Carbonic anhydride ,, . . . . . . . . 9-95 

Sulphur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nil 

Lime (per cent.) . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-10 

In this rich ore the carbonic, anhyhride would combine with 35'95 per cent, of the copper 
to form malachite, leaving .V41 per cent., which in the absence of sulphur would probably 
be in combination as a silicate. 

Monster Lode, 
The Monster lode consists of at least five disconnected lenses, all of which art in- 
dicated on the accompanying plan. These are as measured from east to west and 
lettered on' the map, AB, CjC,,, D 3 D 2 , D 9 D 10 , and EjG. The ore in all consists of 
faintly-pinkish cupriferous pyrrhotite occurring in tiny bunches, streaks and spots in 
serpentine containing a very little chalcopyrite. It is oxidized in places on the surface 
to a rusty gossan, showing occasional stains of malachite. The accompanying rocks 
are much-shattered serpentines, which cut argillite in close proximity to the lenses, 
and are intersected by dykes of rodingite. 

The lenses AB, CjC 2 , and D 9 D 10 are quite unimportant, being merely thin rusty sel- 
vages with malachite stains traceable on the surface for short distances. The other two 
lenses are more important. Between C 1 C 2 and D 3 D 2 a tunnel has been driven in a 
general northerly direction for 42 ft. 3 in. At 17 ft. 3 in. from the entrance to the 
tunnel occurs a small chamber, in which a winze is sunk. No ore is visible in the 
drive, but some is said to have been struck in the winze 

D 3 D 2 is a curious-shaped lens of ore, roughly triangular, with a greatest dimension 
from east to west of about 18ft., and generally a width of about 10ft. Sin. No 
gossan is here visible, though the surface of the face, laid bare by excavation, is in 
places rusty. The pyrrhotite is massive and solid in places, but elsewhere contains a 
considerable amount of serpentine. A heap of ore of the quality given below, and 
containing about 115 tons, is lying at grass at the base of the face. From analogy with 
lens EjG it is thought that this lens, called the "Monster Blow," does not continue 
far below the surface. 

The lens E X G is traceable for about 53 ft., with a strike a little to the north of 
south-west. The dip is at a high angle to the north. The lens is 5 ft. 6 in. wide at 
its greatest width, where a shaft is sunk, and narrows to east and west. A shallow- 
gossan covers the ore on the surface. The shaft sunk on the lens continues downward, 
with slight variations from the vertical, for 112 ft., and connects with a crosscut run 
from a drive, opening a little above the level of United Creek. The drive and cross- 
cut show no ore. In the drive, serpentine cuts argillite containing quartz stringers. 
On the surface near the mouth of the shaft is lying about 50 tons of ore of the quality 
criven below. The ore was traced downwards by the writers from the mouth of the 
shaft for 38 ft., in places being visible across the whole width of the shaft. Below 



'%.: iC^TkSU 

Haulage-line and Hoppers at the United Mine. 

Geo. Bull. No. 12.] 

[To face page 51. 







11 gr. 

4dwt. 2gi. 

7dwt. 13 gr. 

3dwt. 10 gr. 

15 gr. 


6 dwt. 22 gr. 

2dwt. 5gr. 

2dwt. 12 ur. 

2 dwt. 4gr. 

15 gr. 








it is seen again at 56 ft. and 75 ft. from the mouth of the shaft, but probably exists 
in no quantity. The ore-seam is said to have gradually diminished in width from 
the surface to a depth of 50 ft., and In have been very inconsiderable below that depth. 
Traces of ore are reputed to have occurred in the crosscut. 

The following analyses indicate the quality of the ore at various places. The 
speciiu. ns are all representative, and not picked :- 

Gold (per ton) .. 1 dwt. 6gr. 

Silver „ . . 7 dwt. 13 gr. 

Copper (per cent.) .. 17'4li 

Nickel and cobalt 

(percent.) .. 006 002 0-01 009 007 009 003 

(1.) From section B. (surface outcrop). 

(2.) From section C. 

(3.) From section D :1 ("Monster Blow "). 

(4.) From section E, near Hag. 

(5.) From cut at peg F, beside shaft. 

(•>.) From cut D (most northerly section). 

(7.) From ore-heap outside shaft. 

It will lie seen that in the larger deposits the quality as far as copper is concerned is 
low, but it is noteworthy that, as in the Saddle lode, which the Monster lode markedly 
resembles, the content of gold ami silver is considerable. The quantity of ore available 
probably does not altogether exceed a few hundreds of tons, but, owing to the very erratic 
character of the lenses, it is extremely difficult to make anything like a correct estimate. 

If end of Chromite Creek, 

At the head of Chmmite Creek (a branch of Backet Creek) native copper and cuprite 
impregnate serpentine and the lower side of a narrow dyke of rodingite, which dips 
southward at an angle varying from 12° to 70°. The lens of on- is very small, being 
traceable for only 12 ft., and being only a few inches wide. The copper minerals are 
mainly in the rodingite, the native copper being either in the form of shot copper or 
in tiny veinlets. A representative specimen was found on analysis to contain some 
0'7-t per cent, of copper. About a ton of ore of this quality is stacked on the surface. 

Johnston's United Mine. 

This mine is developed by two drives and an incline shaft. Ore is now visible //' 
situ only in the shaft, but the tip-heads of both drives show fragments of fair material 
evidently taken therefrom. The ore consists mainly of serpentine stained with car- 
bonates of copper, and contains a little native copper. Some of the fragments show 
cupriferous pyrrhotite, and copper-oxides and "grey ore" are said to have formerly 
been mined. The lower drive, the entrance to which is tit a point about 10 ft. above the 
level of Serpentine Creek, cuts serpentine of varying degrees of hardness, through 
which ramify vain lets of calcite and irregular dykes of rodingite. The upper drive, 
about GO ft. above the lower drive, traverses similar material. The incline shaft, the 
mouth of which is about 40 ft. above the upper drive, descends at an angle of about 
35° to the southward, on the inclination of the cupriferous seam. Johnston's United 
Mine can in no way lie considered a promising prospect. 

The United Mine. 
Development of Mine. — As will be seen in a previous paragraph, the United Mine 
has been worked intermittently by various companies for nearly thirty years. Its 
4* — Dun Mountain. 


workings are situated entirely within the valley of the United Creek, a tributary of 
the Roding. It has been developed by seven adit levels on the steep southern side of 
the valley. These are numbered, from the tup to the bottom, 1 to 7, and are con- 
nected with each other by rises and winzes. Level No. 1, situated at an altitude of 
1,740 ft. above sea-level and 600 ft. above the floor of the United Valley, is in great 
pari collapsed. Much of the country between No. 1 and No. 2 levels (Gift, below. 
No. 1) is stoped out. Level No. 2 is in good repair, and it is connected with No. 3 
(63 ft. below) by a winze. Level No. 3 and level No. 4 (63 ft. and 110 ft. respec- 
tively below No. 2) are connected also by an open winze, but the passages downward 
from level No. 4 to No. 5 (44 ft. apart) are blocked. Level No. 6 is completely col- 
lapsed, but there is a short intermediate level below No. 5, and minor open workings 
above it. Level No. 7 (172 ft. below No. 5) is in good order. In addition to these 
workings, there is a tunnel driven in the so-called Maitai lode, which is of no import- 
ance. The drive lies to the west of the United workings at an altitude of about 1,600 ft. 
Miner aloffical Character of the Ore. — The ore of the United Mine consists almost 
entirely of pyi rhotite and chalcopyrite. There is a little malachite seen in the workings, 
ami a very little native copper in tiny dendritic incrustations occurs with malachite 
in a very small pug-seam in No. 4 level. In the gossanous outcrop of the lodes a 
small quantity of native copper is said to have been visible, and a few small specks 
from this locality were seen by one of the writers. In some places the ore consists 
mainly of pyrrhotite, with merely streaks and patches of chalcopyrite, and always 
with more or less serpentine. Elsewhere chalcopyrite predominates, with pyrrho- 
tite visible only in the meshes of its numerous streaks. Ihe ore is always fine-grained. 
When chalcopyrite is the principal mineral the colour is a dark-greenish brass-yellow, 
while when pyrrhotite predominates it is a dark grey with a pinkish tint. Chal- 
copyrite in general decreases in quantity downwards from level to level, but there are 
apparently locally richer patches below floors of poorer material. Thus, while the 
amount of chalcopyrite in the ore of No. 2 and No. 3 levels is much greater than that 
in No. 7, the quantity of the same material seems to be greater in the ore from the 
No. 5 level than from the No. 4. 

Description of Shoots of Ore, and Analyses. — On the ridge between the Champion 
and United creeks the serpentine is in places rusty, and contains talc. Above the 
entrance of the No. 1 level the serpentine is rusty and gossanous for 20 ft. or 30 ft., 
but little or no copper-bearing minerals are visible. About 20 ft. to the west of the 
entrance of the drive stripping has revealed a few feet of rusty serpentine, stained 
in places with copper-green, and containing a little pyrrhotite. An analysis of this 
material, taken from a cut 2 ft. 7 in. wide, showed 0'3 per cent, of copper.* Similar, 
though less conspicuous, outcrops of copper-bearing gossan appear on the slopes of the 
hill between No. 1 and No. 2 adits. 

The much-collapsed workings of the No. 1 level reveal little in the form of ore. 
The level runs in straight for 10 ft. or 12 ft., and then turns to the west and enters a 
small chamber. In the straight part of the drive copper-green stains the wall in 
places, while, in the chamber, bunches and streaks of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite appear 
in the serpentine. 

Between the No. 1 level and the No. 2 level most of the good sulphide ore has already 
been stoped, but some, consisting mainly of pyrrhotite, still remains. The lens of ore 
can be traced at intervals for about 54 ft. along the top of the stopes above No. 2 
level (a very irregular roof), widening and narrowing, and in places cutting out alto- 

* Mr. Hooper, manager of the Copper Mines Development Company (Limited), informs the writers that 
black oxide from this locality contained as mu "h as 16 per cent, of copper. 


gether. Tlie greatest width observed was 3ft. Tin., a width visible only for a few 
feet in length. It is very difficult to estimate the amount of ore still existing between 
the No. 1 and the Xo. 2 levels. It is certainly not great, and is thought to be lass than 
100 tons. 

Ore appears on the floor of the No. 2 level for about 87 ft., the beginning of the lens 
occurring not far in from the entrance to the drive. The following is a tabulated 
statement of the results obtained by making six cuts on the floor of the drive of No. 2 
level : — 


Distance North of 


Amount and Location 

Country Rock. 

of Cut. 

Peg II (see Map). 

of Cut. 

of Ore in Cut. 

Ft. in. 

Ft. in. 

1 .. 

14 10 

2 ft. 10 in. on east side. 

2 .. 

35 10 

4 5 

1 ft, 7 in. 


3 .. 

52 10 


3 in. on west side 

Serpentine and a little rodingite. 

4 .. 

65 8 

4 5 

5 in. on east side 


5 .. 

87 2 

5 1 

2 ft. 4 in. near centre 

Serpentine on east, rodingite on 

6 .. 

95 6 



It will be seen from these sections that there is very little ore available on the 
floor of the drive. The quality can l>e gathered from the following four analyses of 
ore and serpentine taken from cuts Nos. 2, 3, 1, and 5: — 

Gold (per ton) 

Silver „ 

Copper (per cent.) 

Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) 



—Number ot Cut, 









2dwt. 10 gr. 

1 dwt. 4 gr 









Between Xo. 2 and Xo. 3 levels most of the ore has already been stoped. Seven 
cuts altogether were made in the chamber immediately above Xo. .'5 level and in the 
rise leading therefrom to the Xo. 2 level. The width of the lens id' ore in the various 
places given may be tabulated as follows: — 

of Cut. 

Position with relation to 

Length of 


Amount and Location of Ore in Cut. 

Ft. in. 


North side 


(i in. on west side. 


South side 


13 in. 


Rise above chamber 

2 10 

2 ft. 4 in. on east side. 


13 ft. 7 in. above roof 

3 7 

Whole distance, and also between 
end of cut and western wall. 


20 ft. above roof 


1 ft. 4 in. 


20 ft. 7 in. above roof (opposite 


Lens 2 ft, 6 in. wide on west side, 

side from cut No. 5) 

and vein 2 in. wide on east side. 


26 ft. 2 in. above roof 

3 6 

1 ft, 2 in. on west side. 

From these figures it will be seen that the lens of ore is subject to rapid and 
marked variations in both longitudinal and horizontal directions, and that serpen- 


tine replace- the payable material within shorl distances. The lode here apparently 
dips to the east at about si) , and strikes a little east of north. The quality of the 
ore-samples taken from the seven cuts is as follows: — 




Number of Cut. - 




Gold (per ton) 




15 gr. 




Silver „ 








Copper (per cent.) 








Nickel and cobalt 










* In every sample distinct evidences of cabalt were obtained. 

Small patches of ore — chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite — appear in the roof and walls 
of No. 3 level, and stains of copper-green, but no continuous Eeam is visible. 

Thin streaks of ore and lagging, evidently indicating where the ore has been 
stoped, appeal- for about 63 ft. along the roof of No. 4 level. The ore now obtainable 
is in general of poor quality, as indicated by the four following analyses of samples 
taken from four cuts, particulars regarding which are tabulated with the analyses: — 

Len f th Amount 
of „f n — 

Analyse ;. 


Per Ton. 

Per Cent. 






and Cobalt. 


Ft. in. 

1 7 Trace 

2 8 2 in. 

2 8 ljft. 1 in. 
2 5 2± in. 



Dv.-t. gr. 
1 6 
1 6 
1 5 
1 5 



As judged by the lagging in the roof of No. 5, it is thought that a short lens of 
ore formerly existed in the intermediate level above No. 5 level. A very little ore is still 
visible in the roof. Two samples were taken for analysis (Nos. 2 and 3 below). No. '2 
is from a cut 3 in. long, and shows mainly ore, with a little serpentine. No. 3 is 
from a cut 3 ft. 5 in. long, showing 14 in. of ore. Off the winze descending to th? inter- 
mediate level small patches of ore are seen in a small chamber. Sample No. 1 is from 
these small and quite inconsiderable lenses. In the intermediate level below, most 
of the roof, where formerly the seam showed, is now covered with lagging, but, to the 
northeastward, streaks of ore occur for a little over 2ft., scattered through serpentine 
for a distance of 6 ft. 3 in. along the roof. A cut 3 ft. wide made in the roof at this 
point gave the content in copper, cvc, as shown in the analysis (5) below. No. 4 
is from a goufrey seam showing malachite in No. 5 level. The analyses are as follow : — 






Gold (per ton) 

15 gr. 





Silver „ 

1 dwt. 6 gr. 

1 dwt. 4 gr. 

2 dwt. 10 gr. 

1 dwt. 5 gr. 

1 dwt. 5 gr 

Copper (per cent.) . . 






Nickel and cobalt 

(per cent.) 






Ore is said to extend more or less continuously from the intermediate level below 
No. 5 right up to the floor of No. 5 level, but the writers were unable to prove this 


In the No. 7 level ore occurs in the No. 2 crosscut and in the parallel drive be- 
tween No. 5 and No. 6 crosscuts. It is generally pyrrhotite, with nunc or loss chal- 
copyrite. Ihe ore in crosscut No. 2 consists merely of small streaks of ore 2\ in. wide, 
occurring in a width of 10 in. of serpentine. A sample was taken of material from a 
cut 1 ft. tf in. wide, which thus consisted in great part of serpentine. This sample 
analysed as follows: Silver, 15 gr. per ton; copper, OIK") per cent.; nickel and cobalt, 
001 per cent. 

Ore appears in the roof of the drive parallel to the main level for a distance of 
60 ft. Eight cuts in the roof were made, and samples obtained for analysis. Further 
particulars of the cuts and analyses from them may lie tabulated as follows: — 

Length of Cut. 

Width ef Ore 
in Cut, 



Per Ton. 

Per Cent. 





and Cobalt. 

Ft. in. 

Ft, in. 

Dwt. gr. 


3 6 



1 21 




2 6 



1 19 






1 gr. 

1 5 




3 10 



1 1 




4 3 

1 2 


1 1 






ti gr. 





2 3 


1 gr. 

1 5 




2 1 



1 6 



From these results it will be seen that the amount of ore available here is quite negligible 
from an economic standpoint, the seam being everywhere too narrow to mine. 

From a small lens of ore, 13 in. wide, in a chamber 52 ft. up the list' from 
No. 7 level a sample was taken, winch analysed as follows: Gold (per ton), 7 gr. ; 
silver (per ton), 2 dwt. 5gr.; copper (per cent.), n'!l: nickel and coball (percent.), 0'03. 

It will be seen from the above description that the lenses of ore in the United 
Mine are everywhere narrow and of no greal longitudinal or vertical extension. They 
suddenly narrow and cease altogether both along th<' dip and strike. The maxi- 
mum width of any lens was found to be just under 5 ft., a dimension obtained at one 
point in the winze between No. 2 and No. 3 levels, while the most continuous shoot 
is that extending from No. 1 level to and below the No. 3 level. 

In November. 1908, a rough estimate of the amount of ore developed gave about 

425 tons, made up as follows: Above No. 7 level, 63 tons: below No. 5 level, 1)2 Ions: 
above No. 5 level, 29 tons; in No. 1 level, doubtful: between Nos. 3 and 2 levels, 
136 tons; above No. 2 level, 55 tons (approximately): total, 425 tons (of 2,2240 1b.). 

The total amount of ore mined and lying at grass amounted to 270 tons, made 
up as follows: Outside No. 7 level and lower down (say) 60 tons; entrance to No. 5 
level (say) 75 tons: entrance to No. 4 level (say) 100 tons; entrance to No. 3 level 
(say) 25 tons: entrance to No. 2 level (say) 10 tons: total, 270 tons (of 2,240 1b.). 
Since this estimate was made the writers have been informed that much of the ore then 
visible has been smelted or otherwise concentrated and sold. 

The Cham pi o/i Mine. 

The Champion Mine is situated on the left or southern side of Champion Creek, 
on lodes which have been thought by some observers to represent the continuation of 


those of the United Mine, but which from miner alogical and other reasons are con- 
sidered by the writers to be quite distinct therefrom. There are two more or less 
distinct lodes or mineralized zones along which lenses of ore occur — a more easterly 
one, the Doctor's lode, and the Champion lode proper. The latter is thought to be 
the main lode, and the former merely a radiating branch therefrom. 

Development of Mine. — On the Doctor's lode two levels are driven. The upper 
level, No. 1, is situated some 150 ft. above the level of Champion Creek, and 1,550 ft. 
above sea-level. No. 2 level is 72 ft. below No. 1. On the Champion lode are driven 
the No. J and the No. 2 Champion levels. No. 1 level stands at an altitude of 1,480 ft., 
and 80 ft. above the Champion Creek. Champion level No. 2 is 50 ft. below No. 1. 
A winze of very irregular shape connects Champion level No. 2 with the 150 ft. level, 
which is, as its name implies, 150ft. below. To this level also leads a shaft about 
140 ft. deep on the north of the Champion Creek, and from it descends along the trend 
of the Champion at an angle of 65° a sloping winze for 78 ft. At 58 ft. down, small 
drives extend 15 ft. on either side from this winze. In addition to the various work- 
ings already named there are a number of others — shafts, tunnels, &c. — which, as they 
contain no ore, need not be mentioned in detail. 

Mineraloyical Character of the Ore. —The mineral association in the ore of the 

Champion presents in some ways a marked variation from the other lodes of the sub- 
division. Above the water-level there is, or was, a relatively thick capping of oxidized 
ore, consisting mainly of malachite, cuprite, native copper, and possibly chrysocolla, 
occurring with much hydrous iron-oxides, magnetite, and serpentine. Below the water- 
level this combination gradually gives place to unoxidized material (except, of course, 
where recent alteration has taken place along the workings) consisting of very low-grade 
cupriferous pyrrhotite and native copper. Both of these latter minerals occur in tiny 
and irregular streaks and patches in lenses in a zone of highly shattered serpentine. 
Several of these streaks may occur along the length and width of a lens, and several 
lenses which show little or no definition or horizontal or vertical extension occur within 
the shattered zone. Lumps of native copper weighing 1 cwt. or more have been exca- 
vated from the upper levels. The pyrrhotite of the Champion Mine has a specific gravity 
of 4"59. A typical sample from the lowest part of the mine was found to contain 
0'43 per cent, of copper, while a specimen from somewhat higher up gave the follow- 
ing analysis: Gold, nil; silver, nil; copper, 0'50 per cent.; iron, 57'2S per cent.; 
sulphur, 33'93 per cent.; nickel, 0M6 per cent.; cobalt, O'll per cent. The sample 
obtained was too small to permit of an examination for platinum. 

The serpentine occurring with the pyrrhotite and native copper of the lower levels 
is generally blackish in colour, and is frequently covered with a bronzed coating, con- 
sisting mainly of iron-sulphide, hut containing in places, in addition, copper to the 
extent of 0'16 per cent. The pyrrhotite is elsewhere coated with a black crystalline 
material. This is mainly iron-sulphide, but contains also copper, 0"02 per cent. ; anti- 
mony, 0'03 per cent. ; and nickel, 002 per cent. A sample of pyrrhotite from the ore- 
heap at the mouth of No. 2 Doctor's level, and supposed to have been taker from 
this level, contained 2'98 per cent, of copper. From these various analyses it will be 
seen that the quality of the cupriferous pyrrhotite varies, but it is rare to see much 
chalcopyrite. At the mouth of No. 1 Champion level occurs a curious reddish-blaclc 
material which is apparently a mixture of sulphide, sulphate, and oxide of iron — the 
total iron present being equivalent to 32'8 per cent, of ferric oxide or 22'9 per cent, 
of metallic iron. It also contains copper, 3 per cent. 

Descriptior) of Shoots of Ore and Annh/xe^. — The No. 1 Doctor's level has in great 
part collapsed, and no copper beyond occasional malachite-stains are visible. In the 


W ""'MM 

Or. * 

■ ^< 




553 ^ 

The Surface Equipment of the Champiok Mine, showing Old Tip-heads, etc. 

lif.o Bull. No. IS.] 

To face page 56. 


No. 2 level no ore in situ is now visible, though some ore is said to have been formerly 
taken from the workings. The Maoriland Copper Company did considerable develop- 
ment in this level and on the south shaft, to which it leads, but it is understood that 
nothing but barren serpentine and rodingite were revealed. The old workings above 
the No. 1 Doctor's and the No. 1 Champion levels now show no ore, but they are said to 
have run close below the outcrop of the two lodes. 

In the roof of the stope above the No. 1 Champion level (6 ft. 10 in. above the roof 
of the level) several lenses of ore occur, one (A 13) being traceable for 14 ft. !) in. It is 
nowhere of great width, and everywhere consists of shaly serpentine impregnated by 
greenish malachite-stains, with no continuous ore. At peg A the copper-stains show for 
19^ in. across the strike, and at peg H for 11 in., and the lens varies to almost nothing 
in between, being erratic and irregular. The dip is westward at a high and irregular 
angle, but in general at about i*0°. The quantity of ore above the No. 1 Champion 
level amounts probably to only a few tons. Its quality can best be judged by the 
analyses from cuts A and 13 (Nos. 1 and 2 below). The No. 1 Champion level shows 
stains of malachite in the roof about 4 ft. south of the opening to the drive (see analysis 
No. 3). 

(1.) (2.) (3.) 

Copper (per cent.) .. .. .. 2o! 2-59 0-88 

Nickel and cobalt oxides (per cent.) . . 0-05 0-0-1 0-03 

The floor of the No. I Champion level shows a lens of ore extending inwards from 
the entrance of the drive for a distance of 36 ft. 10 in. The vein is narrow, being 
everywhere less than 2ft. wide. A considerable quantity of ore from seams 2ft. to 
•1 ft. wide, and between the No. 1 and No. 2 Levels, is said to have been taken out, but 
the stopes ale now mostly collapsed. 

In the No. 2 or main Champion level traces of copper-green appear here and there 
in the roof near the entrance to the drive, and some stoping is said to have been done 
both below and above the drive. The crosscuts show occasional stains of malachite, 
but no continuous ore. At the end of No. 2 level a narrow scam of native copper and 
pyrrhotite about <i in. wide appears in the wall on the west side of the drive for 4 ft., 
and may extend farther to the southward. The seam dips easterly at about 6")°, and 
the strike is about north-east. The native copper occurs in streaks and Hakes. 

In tlie winze leading from the No. 2 level to the lot) ft. level a little copper is seen 
in a few places to the intermediate level 85ft. below the No. 2. These occurrences are 
conspicuous only near the top of the winze, where a specimen was taken for analysis in 
a cut made along the dip of the lens for (J\ ft (see analysis No. 1 below). It is thought 
possible that the winze is sunk along the foot-wall of a copper-bearing lens. In the 
intermediate level, traces of copper appear along the roof between pegs A and C (see 
map). A specimen obtained in a cut made in this distance gave the result shown in 
analysis No. 2 (below). 

In the winze below the intermediate level (between the No. 2 and the 150ft. level) 
the zone of fissile serpentine dipping at about 60° to the east, in which the winze is 
sunk, is well exposed, and copper-ores in the form of malachite-stains and blebs of 
native copper and cupriferous pyrrhotite appear in places from the intermediate to 
the 1.10 ft. level. At 12 ft. up the incline from peg D (on the map) a sample from a 
cut of 4 ft. 6 in. across the dip analysed with the result given in No. 3 below: — 

(1.) (2.) (3.) 

Copper (per cent.) . . . . . . 1-05 0-94 0-10 

Nickel and cobalt (per cent.) . . . . Nil 0-08 0-13 


In the L50 ft. level no ore is seen excepting near the winze descending below the 
level. Here a very soft puggy seam was found on the west side of the drive, just to the 
north of the winze, and followed 12 ft. to the south of it. A rise was put up for 40ft. 
on the seam. A little native copper and pyrrhotite were found for a few feet, and then 
only pyrrhotite. It was to test this lens of ore that the winze below the 150 ft. level was 
sunk. As remarked before, the winze is sunk about 78 ft. at a general angle of 65°, 
though for the first 12 ft. the inclination is almost vertical. At 58 ft. down, small 
drives i un off from the winze for a distance of 15 ft. in either direction. The winze 
is timbered in the upper part, and below shows shah serpentine with thin lenses of 
native copper and pyrrhotite occurring through it irregularly in a width of about 3 ft. 
The same native copper aud pyrrhotite appear also in both side drives, but are 
more conspicuous in the southern one. The lenses of ore occur in these drives up to 
2 in. or 3 in. thick in a width of 3 ft. of serpentine, but are always discontinuous in 
longitudinal section. This seam of ore is certainly traceable for 30 ft. in these drives, 
and in ground not yet tested it may go farther north and south. It is quite possible 
that a block of ore extends from the bottom of the winze to the 150 ft. level. Analyses 
were made of material from eight cuts in the winze and side chambers, as follows : 
Cut G : North end of winze, lb ft. down, in soft serpentine, with a little flake native 
copper; length of cut, 2 ft. 9 in. Cut H: South side of winze, 24 ft. down; length of 
cut, 2 ft. Din. Cut I: South side of winze, 31ft. down; length of cut, 2 ft. in. 
Cut J : South side of winze, 37 ft. down; length of cut, 2 ft. 9 in. Cut K: South side 
of winze, 42ft. down; length of cut, 3ft. Gin. Cut L: North side of winze, 46ft. 
down; length of cut, 2ft. Gin. Cut M: In north chamber, 10ft. in from peg A, on 
foot-wall; length of cut, 3ft. 3 in. Cut N : In south chamber, 10ft. 9 in. in from 
peg A, on foot-wall; length of cut, 3 ft. 7 in. All cuts from H downwards are in ser- 
pentine, with no native copper showing. 



- Cut. 
J. K. 






1-70 0-22 





Copper (per cent.) . . 12T3 
Nickel and cobalt (per 
cent.) .. .. 0-08 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-05 0-04 0-000 

Quantity of Ore and Futurt Prospects of Mine. — It is quite impossible to estimate 
the amount of copper in the Champion Mine. The quantity so far visible and develop- 
ing amounts at the very best to only a few hundred tons. On the north side of the 
Champion Creek are a few- small heaps of ore. This material is mainly serpentine, 
with malachite, native copper, cuprite, and pyrrhotite, the average copper-content of 
which probably does not exceed 5 per cent. The future of the mine is, in the writers' 
opinion, unpromising; but since fair ore was obtained at the lowest point reached, and 
since there are in the mine several small lenses of ore which have been but little pro- 
spected, it is thought that the mine can scarcely yet be said to have been proved worth- 
less. Several places which are thought to warrant further prospecting may be enume- 
rated : (1.) At the end of the main (or No. 2) Champion level, where the small lens of 
rich ore was discovered. It should be prospected to the north and south where 
visible, and if the work warranted further exploration a winze should be then sunk on 
the seam. (2.) The winze below the 150 ft. level ought to be sunk farther, and the two 
short drives opening therefrom continued farther to the north and south to prove the 
extent of the lens. (3.) Since it seems possible that the winze from the No. 1 Cham- 
pion level to the 150 ft. level may have been sunk not actually along the mineral zone 
but in the foot-wall, further prospecting might be done here to advantage. From 
every standpoint the Champion, in the writers' opinion, presents greater hopes for the 
future than does the United. 


Metallurgical Treatment of the Ores of flu United and Champion Mines. 

The writers are indebted to Mr. Harley E. Hooper, formerly manager of the Copper 
Development Company (Limited), for the following concise account of the metallurgical 
treatment of the Champion and United ores in the reverberators furnace situated near 
the junction of United and lioding creeks. The furnace was operated for a few months 
only in the days of the Maoriland Copper Company (Limited) : — 

"Ore arriving from mine, in pieces Gin. and downward, was crushed in a small 
Gates crusher (Jacques No. 2) to pass a 2 in. ring. From the crusher ore was delivered 
to the feed-floor of the pots, where Mich fluxes as were necessary were added (mainly 
10 per cent, of quartz). The ore consisted usually of two parts of United to one part 
of Champion, ami the quartz contained some sulphide. The charge was hist saturated 
with water and then charged in by hand to roasting-pots (two) which had previously 
had a small wood tire placed in them, and the blast was then turned half on. The 
capacity of each pot was about 4 tons. The feeding was intermittent, the additional 
charge being added as the heat showed through the mass already put in. The whole 
operation of charging into the pots took about four hours. When tilled the charge was 
left for about four hours with a full blast on, the vent holes being puked down as they 
appeared. The pcits (of Huntington-Heberlein type) were then inverted, being worked 
on trunnions. The charge came out as a solid mass with about ~> per cent, to 10 per 
cent, of unburned fines. These lines were returned to the feed-floor to accompany nexl 
charge. The mass was cooled by water-spray, then broken up into !) in. pieces with 
hammer and gad, ami passed through a Blake crusher, which crushed down to pieces 
.'5 in. in size. This crusher delivered into a storage-bin of a capacity of 15 to 20 tons. 
The bin discharged into a hopper truck of a capacity of 2A tons, which was run along 
an elevated railroad over the top of the reverberatory furnace. The contents of the 
hopper truck were discharged from the bottom of the truck through a small hole in 
the roof of the furnace, and then hand-rabbled over the lied of the furnace. 

"The reverberatory is a 10- ton furnace- the hearth being Hi ft. by loft., with a 
grate-area in the firebox of about 4 ft. by 4ft. -the ratio of grate-area to hearth being 
about HI pel cent. The h<>t gase8 passed up in incline Hue to I lie stack. The firebox is 
suitable either for wood or coal firing, having doors at the end for wood and one at the 
side for coal. The slag was tapped out of the front of the furnace, beneath the flue, 
and the matte at the side. After lowering the charge the furnace was closed up and 
heated vigorously. 

"Under ordinary working conditions the charge was in a fused state in from six 
to eight hours — the matte and slag being in separate layers, the latter, of course, on 
toj). When a fair amount of slag had formed it was skimmed off through the front 
door. Since from one charge there was not enough matte to necessitate tapping, the 
next charge was lowered down on top of the molten matter am! the same procedure as 
before gone through until there was sufficient matte to make it worth while tapping. 
The matte was not usually completely tapped out. 

"The air was supplied by Root's Acme blowers, size L, and conveyed in an Sin. 
pipe to the pots, and was also used as a force draught under the furnace-grate — a con- 
dition necessary owing to the poor quality of the fuel-supply. 

" The power was supplied by a Globe gas-engine of 45-horse power, the fuel used 
being either gas-coke, or a mixture of Brunner coke and charcoal. A small Douglas 
ram, size 6, supplied the water necessary for the pots, gas-engine, scrubber, and general 

The matte from the metallurgical works was found to contain 6312 per cent, of 
copper, and the slag therefrom 1"07 per cent, of copper. 


At the Champion Mine a 16-horse power engine is installed for winding up the 
rock waste and water. Formerly a small Worthington low-pressure pump was used in 
the sump at the 150ft. level of that mine, but water was being lifted from the winze 
below thai level by manual labour at the time of inspection. 

Origin of the Copper-ores. 

There can be no doubt that the copper-ores have some strong genetic connection 
with the dykes of rodingite, since wherever the ores are found this rock exists in close 
proximity. Moreover, in several instances the copper-ores actually impregnate rodingite. 
it is possible that the lenses of copper-bearing sulphides represent the most basic pro- 
ducts* of the igneous activity, which began with the diorite-diabase-peridotite magma 
with basic segregations of chromite, and was later followed by dyke intrusions of 
rodingite. Whether the veins of copper-bearing sulphides or the quartz veins were the 
later is not quite certain from the held relations. Very probably the copper-bearing 
solutions came either immediately after the rodingite and impregnated it while it was 
still warm, or possibly came actually with it. In many places the ores occur in sheared 
and faulted serpentine, which must therefore have been extruded some time before 
deposition of the copper-bearing sulphides. The occurrence of oxidized ore at the out- 
crop of the various lodes is easily explained as the product of surface oxidation, but 
the presence of native copper with pyrrhotite, and without any other oxidized ores, to the 
lowest levels of the Champion Mine, well below the present water-level, does not meet 
with so ready an explanation. As seen in a previous paragraph, the native copper 
occurs in irregular streaks and sagenitic patches in the pyrrhotite, showing both in 
the hand-specimens and when examined in reflected light that it is most certainly- 
secondary. It seems probable that it is the product of descending waters, though the 
absence of other oxidized ores and the presence of the quite unoxidized sulphide (cupri- 
ferous pyrrhotite with the copper in sulphide form) seem to negative this suggestion. 
Of course, the order of oxidation of the iron-sulphide and the copper-sulphide portions 
of the cupriferous pyrrhotite is not invariable, though apparently the iron-sulphide is 
generally the hist to be changed. However, some of the copper-sulphide might be 
oxidized and much iron-sulphide be unchanged. Hence almost pure pyrrhotite 
might remain while native copper was being formed by the action of oxidizing solu- 
tions on the copper-sulphide contained. The following equations may hold good not- 
withstanding statements to the contrary : — 

CuFeS 2 + 2CuO = 3Cu + FeS + S0 2 . 

CuFeS, + CuS0 4 = 2Cu + FeS + 2S0 2 . 
llCuFeS 2 + 20CuO = 31Cu + Fe u S 12 + 10SO 2 . 
HCuFeS 2 + 10CuSO 4 = 21Cu + Fe^S^ + 20S0 2 . 

There seems nothing to suggest that the native copper occurring in the Champion 
Mine below the water-level is the product of ascending solutions. 


Situation and General Description of the Chromite Belt. 

Small deposits of chromite are of widespread occurrence within the area covered 
by the present report, and in the country to the north-east and south-west of the sub- 
division. Their general distribution corresponds with that of the copper-bearing belt 

* J. E. Spun-, "A Theory of Ore-deposition," Econ. Geol., vol. ii,.No. 8, Dec., 1907, pp. 781-795. 




Scale of Feet 

N"E Level t — - 


N°S level 

mw/,y; ;x»a^aimki 

I ^ »*X°*°mix-.\K< "■'■ : ^■■■■^- " . ;■ ■ ■ -IM'J!:!!^ H— ... , ,j. . . . J .-,.■■■.;■■... ; . ~ ~ 



Scale of Feet 

"" °""\ " 7 T 7 T 


Scale of Feei 

| Dra*n by O. A Darby. June /9Q5. 

Lagging- shown Ihus 

Numbars indicate sample taken for analysis 

By Authority John Maokaif, Government Printer. 

Crosse ut^fa 



Scale of Feet 

I i i i l i '- 

Points at which samples were taken 
Ore bodies- 


Crosscut N 9 1 

Ore taken out 

I~^a Shaft 

Ore Heap • 

Ore Heap 

.01 <v 

l—— _ 


Crosscut N° I 



8jf Authority 1 John Maokat/, Government Printer 

?00-£ II -SOI 


jfl Doctor s N°l Level 

HI Champion N?l Level 




Scale of Feet 

Letters refer to samples taken 

Authority j John Maekau, Qoubrnment Printer. 

yOO-S-"- 300, 


already described. The characteristic topography of this belt of ultra-basic rocks forms 
one of the salient physiographic features of the Dun Mountain Subdivision 

Distribution of Chbomite-deposits in otheh Parts of New Zealand and elsewhere. 
Deposits of chromite in New Zealand are not limited to the area being described. 
They occur in Mount Arthur and in the western part of Otago near Milford Sound. 
However, no chromite is now being mined in New Zealand. The world's supply comes 
chiefly from New Caledonia, Russia, Greece, ami Rhodesia, while Turkey (Asia Minor), 
India, Japan, United States, Canada, New South Wales, and other countries produce 
small amounts. 

Mode of OccpnRENCE of the Ore. 
From the experience gained by actual mining it may he gathered that the chromite- 
deposits of the Dun Mountain do not differ materially from chromite deposits in other 

parts of the world except in their small size. In the Dun Mountain Subdivision the 
chromite occurs as grains widely scattered through certain of the peridotite rocks, 
especially the dunites, and as mere nodules and fair-sized elliptical masses in serpen- 
tines ami peridotites. The deposits do not apparently favour any particular situation 
in the enclosing rocks, occurring both near the contact with sediment a lies ami remote 
therefrom. The deposits are in main places cut by dykes, generally small, of rodingite. 

Mineral Charac i er op the < >re. 
Theoretically, chromite possesses the chemical formula FeO Cr O • but ore of this 

1 2 3 

composition rarely or never occurs in nature. Actually, as remarked before, the Dun 
Mountain chromite is a spinellid mineral half \va\ between chromite and picotite. The 
following are analyses of the ores from Canada, "Turkey, and New Caledonia, which 

may he compared with those of New Zealand* : — 

Canada. Turkey. Xew Caledonia. 

Chromic oxide (Cr,0 3 ) . . .. .. 45-90 51-70 55-70 

Alumina (A1.,0 3 ) .. .. .. 3-20 14-10 16-20 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) . . . . . . 35-38 14-20 16-60 

Magnesia (MgO) . . . . . . 1503 1430 9-80 

The Dun Mountain ore varies considerably in texture, being sometimes coarsely 
crystalline and remarkably pure, again fairly finely crystalline ami mixed with much 
serpentine. In the deposits in dunite a great deal of unaltered or partially altered 
olivine occurs. 

History of Chromite-mining in the Dun Mountaih Subdivision. 

Mining for chromite on the Dun Mountain began in the " fifties," and was continued 
while the juice of chromite was high, with more or less success, until 1865. During 
this time ore was mined at the Dun Mountain and in the valley of the Serpentine and 
the Miner. The Dun Mountain Tramway was constructed primarily with the object 
of taking the ore to the seaport at Nelson. 

* J. A. Dresser, " Mineral Deposits of the Serpentine Belt of Quebec," Jour. Canad. Min. Inst., vol. xii, 
p. 72. 


Description of the various Properties. 
Deposits in the Neiflibovrhood of Dun Mountain . 
Chromite has been mined or prospected in no less than sixteen places in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Dun Mountain (see Cr 1, Cr 2, &c, on map of localities). The ore in 
these various occurrences varied considerably in texture and in quality, being in places 
coarsely crystalline and elsewhere finely crystalline. As will be seen by reference to the 
map, these occurrences were both in peridotites and in serpentines. The quantity of ore 
mined was by no means great, and apparently very little now remains. The quality 
of the chromite mined may be gathered from the following analyses of samples from 
(1) Cr 2 (Eoding Valley), (2) Cr 9 (head of Roding Valley), (3) Cr 6 (head of Roding 
Valley), (4) Cr 15 (Dun Mountain):— 

(1.) (2.) (3.) (4.) 

Chromic oxide (per cent.) . . 2740 32-32 53-6-1 31-16 

Deposits near Jackson Saddle. 
Near the saddle at the head of Jackson Creek occur a number of lenses of chromite 
of pool- quality in curiously laminated altered peridotite. One of these is visible for 
49 links, with a greatest visible width of 9"5 links. Narrow dykelets of websterite 
traverse the ore-mass. The ore is shattered, and shows slickensided surfaces, bright 
green in colour with chrome silicate. Another lens is traceable for 135 links, with a 
greatest visible width of about 20 links. The ore is cut by dykelets of websterite and of 
rodingite. Ihe quantity of ore is not great, and the quality may be judged by the 
following analyses of typical ore: From the smaller lens, chromic oxide, 2T8 per cent.; 
from the larger lens, chromic oxide, 34 per cent. 

Deposits on t/ie Miner Stream. 
A small deposit of chromite occurs in shattered grey serpentine near the head of 
the Miner Stream. The lens is traceable only for about 10 ft., being to the westward 
overlain by debris. The lens is only about 2 ft. wide, and strikes at about N. 45° E., 
and dips easterly at a high angle. 

Deposits in Chromite Greek. 
At the head of Chromite Creek (a branch of the Hacket Creek) occur some old 
chromite workings, fallen-in drives, open crosscuts, &c. No chromite is now visible in 
situ in the decomposed serpentine, but a few chunks and small pieces are lying about, 
from which it is gathered that the ore formerly excavated was of fair quality. 

Deposits in Serpentine Valley. 
An old chrome-working lies on the hills to the east of the Serpentine Stream. 
There is a wide opencut in shattered serpentine, but only a few scattered fragments of 
chromite are now to be seen. 

Deposits near Little Ben Nevis. 
Near Little Ben Nevis, which lies just outside the subdivision, occur a number of 
old chromite-workings. Though most of the ore has been excavated, three small ore- 
bodies are still visible — (a), the most easterly, only 6 in. wide, and consisting of granular 
material; (b), centre deposit, and 9 ft. distant, showing 9 in. in width of clean ore; 
(Y), most westerly, 5 ft. distant from (b), showing 3 ft. in width of -lean ore. The 
chromite occurs in a much serpentinized websterite. 


Oiugin or the Ohe. 

As first suggested by Professor F. D. Adams in a paper on the origin of certain 
igneous ores, and later elaborated by J. II. L. Vogt and J. H. Pratt,* there seems no 
doubt that the deposits of chromite have originated by original segregation from the 
ultra-basic magma. 


Distribution of Coal-bearing Rocks. 

The distribution of the coal-bearing rocks lias been given in a previous chapter 
(page 22). They extend diagonally across the subdivision from Groom Creek to 
Brightwater, and it is quite possible that they underlie the low-lying country to the 
westward, beneath the Moutere Gravels and the recent fluviatile gravels of the Waimea 


Mineral Character, Associated Rocks, etc. 

The coal, wherever so far discovered, occurs in much-faulted seams near the base 
of the coal series, in connection with shales, sandstones, and conglomerates. The coal 
is sub-bituminous in quality, as may be gathered from the following analysis of the 
coal from the old and now disused workings in Brook Streel Valley: — 

IVr Cent. 
Fixed carbon ■ .. .. .. .. .. .. 4410 

Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . 48-60 

Water .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1-60 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 5-70 


Total sulphur .. .. .. .. 3-13 

This was a non-caking coal of good quality, and proved of value for household pur 
poses It was somewhat too high in sulphur to be suitable for gas-making. 

Bistort of Coal-mining in the Dun Mountain Subdivision. 

The old coal-mine in York Creek was worked as far hack as the early days of the 

Nelson Settlement, and was examined by Qochstetter al the time of his visit. f Soon 

after this the coal-seam was apparently worked out, and though exploration for coal 

has been carried on intermittently in this locality ever since, success has never so far 

been met with. About ten years ago mining for coal was carried on in Brook Street 
Valley. The operations were just beginning to meet with success when a fire occurred 
in the mine, which had, as a result, to he flooded. At Richmond a little prospecting 
for coal was done about forty-five years ago. 

Some prospecting for coal was also carried on some ten years ago on a branch of 
bowman Creek, and also near Groom ('reel;, with no success worth mentioning. 

Detailed Description ok Principal Occurrences. 

The Brook. 

The coal-seam in Brook Street Valley, in which some exploratory work was con- 
ducted, dipped everywhere at high angles, and in places was vertical. The thickness, 

* Trans, of Prov. of Quebec Min. Ass., Montreal, 1894; "On the Igneous Origin of certain Ores." Zeit. 
fur prak. Geol., Oct., 1894. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., 1899. See also Dresser, lor. cit. 
t"New Zealand," p. 82. 


too, showed remarkable variations. In a prospecting-shaft sunk on the outcrop the fol- 
lowing thicknesses were noted: At 130 ft., 8 ft. thick; at 170ft., 10 ft. thick; at 
260ft., lift, thick; at 329ft., 5ft. thick. 

Enner GVyn. 
In the Enner Glvn or York Creek Coal-mine the seams are said to have, in places, lain 
horizontally, but elsewhere to have dipped at steeper angles, and were, it is understood, 
much broken and disturbed. Thin beds of iron-oxides resulting from the decomposi- 
tion of iron-carbonate occur in connection with the Enner Glvn coal-beds. On analysis 
a representative specimen was found to contain -17"20 per cent, of metallic iron. 

Poor Man Creek to Church Valley Road. 
About 10 chains below the junction of Cabbage Tree and Orphanage creeks on the 
flood-plain formed by these streams, a shaft, marked " Leighton's Shaft " on the map, 
was sunk some years ago. At a depth of about 60 ft. a seam of coal 1 ft. 6 in. thick, 
striking north-east - south-west, is said to have teen reached. No information is avail- 
able as to the character of the other strata passed through, and no further exploration 
of the seam appears to have been made. Carbonaceous sandstones and shales with small 
coaly partings are also reported to occur on the seaward face of the hills between Poor 
Man and Orphan creeks, but at the time of the writers' visit the outcrops were covered 
by slips. 

Where Reservoir Creek debouches on the Waiinea Plain coal was discovered and 
worked between thirty-five and forty-five years ago, about 300 tons being obtained 
altogether. The numerous shallow workings have long since been practically oblite- 
rated, and no outcrops of the coal-bearing rocks are obtainable in this locality. The 
following information was obtained from a reliable source : The main outcrop appeared 
to ha/e a thickness of 6 ft. or 7 ft., to run in a north-east and south-west direction 
for about 2 chains, and to dip to the east at a fairly high angle. Sand and 
clay partings and a thin band of amberite occurred in the coal, which appeared 
to be underlain by a clay and overlain by a micaceous sandstone, the whole being 
unconformably overlain by the Moutere Gravels and other beds. The coal is said to 
have been soft like soot, to have burnt out to a red ash, and to have been inferior in 
quality to the Enner Gryn coal, but was nevertheless sometimes used for steam-engines. 
Traces of coal are also said to have been found at the base of the Richmond Hills 
where Hodson Creek enters the Waimea Plain, and in well-sinkings at the mouth of 
McHardy Gully. 

In Gibbs or Church Valley, just outside the western boundary of the subdivision, 
a small quantity of coal was formerly obtained from a seam said to have been less than 
1 ft. thick which outcropped in the cutting of Gibbs Valley Road, about 10 chains on 
the Wakefield side of a prospecting-shaft which was sunk during 1903 by Mr. J. Gibbs. 
This shaft dipped to the eastward at about 70°, following down on a band of carbonaceous 
clay of an irregular width, averaging about 5 ft. The carbonaceous clay was under- 
lain by a fairly hard sandstone, and overlain by a calcareous mudstone. Gas, which 
extinguished the lights, began to come in at the 32 ft. mark, and as the clay showed 
no signs of becoming more carbonaceous at that depth the shaft was abandoned when 
down about 50 ft. 

Proposed Sites for Deep Exploration. 

It is the opinion of the writers that both the Enner Glvn seam and the Brook 
Street seam have been profoundly influenced by the great fault that runs along the base 


of the mountains forming the south-eastern boundary of the Waimea graben men- 
tioned before. This accounts for the irregularity in the dip of the seams and for the 
shattered nature of the coal. 

In all eases in which any definite infoimation as to direction of dip has been 
obtained the coal-beds seem to have been actually overturned, so that they now appear 
to underlie the older Maitai rocks. Away from the fault, in the low country to the 
west, it seems that the coal-beds will probably assume a mure or less horizontal position. 
It must, however, be remembered that in Upper Miocene times the Waimea Plain was 
the valley of a great river (see page -'(>), and that if, as seems likely, the land then 
stood at a considerably higher level it is quite possible that the coal-beds were partly 
or wholly removed by erosion, and will therefore not be found by boring in the Waimea 

Even if the coal-beds are now absent beneath the greater pari of the Waimea 
Plain, they will still be found in more or less isolated patches alone the Hanks of the 
Richmond Hills and for a little distance out beneath the plain. In this connection it 
may be noted that a bore sunk to a depth of 111 ft. at the freezing-works near Rich- 
mond, in search of water, passed through loose gravel for the first 70 ft., and then 
entered a "hard grey sandstone," in which it continued to the bottom. It sinus pos- 
sible that this sandstone belongs to the Jenkins Mill Beds, in which case it may be expected 
that further boring in this locality would reach coal. It is thought also that a bore in 
O'Brien Creek, about Glen's Bridge, should strike coal at no very great depth. 

Several other locations for bores at no greater distance from the hills than this 
last site might be mentioned, but. in the absence of any definite information to the 
contrary, it seems likely that the coal-seams which might be thus disclosed would be 
found to have suffered considerable dislocation and displacement from the Richmond 

A more thorough and convincing test of the value of the Nelson coal-beds would 
be obtained by boring in any suitable locality at the base of the Moutere Hills — for 
example, near the mouth of Eve's Valley or Redwood Gully. If not removed by former 
denudation, as already explained, there should here lie found the same coal-beds as at 
Enner Glyn, beyond the disturbing influence of the Richmond Fault. In tin 1 absence 
of all surface evidence, the writers are, of course, quite unable to offer any opinion as 
to the probability or otherwise of coal being encountered in such bores, or of the depth 
to which the bores should be sunk ; but there is little doubt that the results, whether 
favourable or the reverse, would go far to settle the doubt as to the extent and value 
of the Nelson coal-beds. 


Limestones axd Aroillites. 

Limestones and argillites of the Maitai Series are widely exposed in the Dun Moun- 
tain Subdivision, notably in the Maitai Stream, on the Dun Mountain Tramway, on 
the Roding, United, Champion, Miner, and Wairoa streams. The limestone, though 
in places argillaceous or siliceous, is elsewhere of great purity and suitable for the 
manufacture of lime. A specimen obtained from the ridge between the Roding and 
Miner streams, near the head of Stratford Creek, may be considered fairly typical. 
Its analvsis (1) is given below, and with it may be compared samples from the Cham- 

5— Dun Mountain. 


pion Track (2), and from the south e 
on the United tramway. 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Lime (CaO) 

Calcium-carbonate (CaC0 3 ) . . 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) . . 

Moisture and organic matter 

Alkalies and undetermined . . 

1 (•')) and north end (4) of the limestone exposure 

1-35 i 























The travertine derived from the limestone on the Miner Stream at the Caves is 
especially pure. The utilization of the limestones for cement-manufacture in connec- 
tion with the adjoining aigillites seems quite a possibility, but not an immediate one. 

Possibly suitable for cement-manufacture, though scarcely occurring in sufficient 
quantity, are the Tertiary limestones and claystones visible in O'Brien Creek. The 
following are analyses (1) of this clay and (2) of the limestone, which has been utilized 
to some extent in the manufacture of lime : — 

Silica (Si0 2 ) . . 

Iron-oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 

Alumina (A1 2 3 ) 

Lime (CaO) 

Carbonic anhydride (C0 2 ) 

Magnesia (MgO) 


Organic matter 

Alkalies, &c. 






















The harder peridotites might lie utilized with success as building-stones, but their 
occurrence at spots difficult of access greatly detracts from their commercial value — 
although, indeed, the Dun Mountain Tramway might at comparatively small expense 
be utilized for the transfer of the stone to Nelson. The fresher dunites make hand- 
some ornamental stones when polished. The fresh grossularite of the rock rodingite 
makes a pretty ornamental stone which might be employed for art jewellery. 

Section on Line E F, Waiaiea Survey Distrk i 

1. Mytilus Problematicus Beds. 

'_'. Conglomerates. 

■i. Monotis Beds. 

4. Wairoa Limestone. 

Note.— It was intended thai this diagram should appear on page 17. 

5. Grauwackes. 

ii. l!e<l and ( treen Argillites. 
7. Serpentines. 

Small open c«* 

Pi. ax of Johnston's United Mine. 
Fin' description oi mine see page •")! of letterpress. 

Geo. Hull. No. 13.] 

To fare, pat/ 1 66. 




Adams, F. D., 63. 
Agriculture, grazing, &c, 6. 
Alluvial deposits, auriferous, 42. 
Amberite (resin) in coal, 64. 
Ammonites, 20-21. 
Analyses of coal, 63. 

„ chromite, 01, 62. 

,, copper, gold, silver, &c, 43, 4li, 48 (/ seq. 

mineral, 31, 32, 34, 37. 
,, miscellaneous, 27, 42. 

rock. IS. 31, 32, 33. 3:.. 36, 37, 13. Hi. 66. 
Andesite, augite-, 40. 
Aniseed Valley, 4, 20. 

„ copper-ore of (see United Mine, 

( lhampion Mine, &c). 
,, rocks and geology of (see Reding 

,, Company's Copper-mine, 7, 8. 

Anticlines, pitching, 15. 
Anticlinorium, 15. 
Aragonite, 44. 
Area of subdivision, 1. 
Argillites as building-stones, 65. 

,, of Maitai Series, 17, IS, 65. 

slaty, 17. 
Aricgite (Lacroix), 32. 

Arrow Rock conglomerate (see Table opposite p. 13). 
Asbestos (see Chrysotile). 
Auriferous alluvial deposits (set also GSold), 42 
Azurite, 44, 47, 49. 


Basalt (melaphyre), 40. 

„ tuft's, 40. 
Basic igneous rocks, 11, 35-36, 40. 
Bastite, 30, 31, 36. 

,, analysis of, 31. 
Batty's shaft and drive, 47. 
Beech forest, plant-association of, 4-5. 
Bell, J. M., 9. 
Black-oxide Lode, 47. 
Bonney, T. G., 32 (footnote), 3b. 
Bores for coal, proposed, 65. 
Boulder Bank, Nelson, 8, 11, 12, 27. 
Boulders, granite, in Port Hills sandstone, &c. (see 

also Granite), 23. 
Boundaries of subdivision, 1. 
Breccia, surface-, 12, 27. 

„ ,, analvsis of cementing material of, 

Brook Street igneous rocks, 11, 12, 13, 40, 42, 40. 

,, Valley, coal-mining in, &c, 03, 04. 

Building-stones, 65, 66. 
Bush (see also Flora), 3 et seq. 
,, disappearance of, 4. 


Cainozoic strata (set Jenkins Hill Series, Moutere 

Calcite, 35, 51. 

Carboniferous rocks, supposed, 13, 17, 20, 21. 
Cement, materials for, 65, 66. 
Chalcocite, 44. 

Chalcopyrite, 44. 47, 50, 52, 54. 56, 60. 
" ( ihalcotrichite," 8. 
champion Creek, copper-ore of (set Champion 


„ Copper Mine ami Company, 15.55 58, 

:,'. ). 
.Mine development of, 50. 
,, ,, metallurgical treatment of cues 

of. 59. 

mineral character of ore of, 56, 

ore-analyses of. 57. 58. 
,, ., prospects of, 58. 

„ ,, quantity of ore in, 58. 

„ ,. shoots of ore 1 of. &C, 56 it .«</. 

,, Lode, 50. 

I hapman, H., 19. 

Chromite, chrome-iron ore, &c, I, 30, .32, 30, 42, 
44, 45, 40, 60 62. 
,, analyses of, 01. 02. 

distribut ion of, 01. 
,, mineral character of, 01. 

„ mining , history of, 61. 

,, mode of occurrence of. til. 

,, origin of, 03. 

Belt, situation and general description 

of, 60-61. 
< i ok. copper-deposit of, 51. 
Chrvsocolla. 44, 47, 49. 50. 56. 
Chrysotile, 37. 

Church or Gibbs Valley, coal ill, (il. 
( linnabar (?), reported, 48. 
Classification, geological (see also Table opposite 

p. 13). 13. 
( 'laystone, (iti. 
( 'limate, 2-3. 

,, during Miocene times, 23. 
Coal and coal-measures, 1, 12, 13, 22, 23, 63—65. 
age of, 12. 13. 
,, ,, char cter of, 03. 

,, ,, distribution of, 22, 63. 

„ analvsis of, 03. 

character and classification of, 2, 03. 
,, deep exploration of, 04-05. 
,, occurrences of, 63-64. 
„ possible erosion of, 65. 
,, mining, 03 et seq. 
,, „ history of, 65. 

Coastal area, flora of, 3. 

,, geologv and physiography of, 11, 12, 

Coast -line, 11. 

Cobalt in copper-ore, 44, 40 et seq. 
Code's Point, copper-ore of, 40. 


Communication, means of, 0. 
Concentration of alluvial gold, 42. 
Conglomerate Creek, rocks and geology of, 15, 40. 
,, of Jenkins Hill Series, 23. 

of Maitai Scries, 15-16, 21, 26. 
Copper, native, 44, 45, 46, 47, 51, 52, 56, 57, 58, 60. 

,, ,, origin of, 60. 

,, dendritic, 52. 
Belt, 43-44. 

„ deposits, &c., 1, 43-60. 

,, ,, detailed description of, 46-60. 

„ ,, lensoid nature of, 45. 

„ ,, mineral character of, 44. 

„ ,, minerals associated with, 44. 

,, ,, mode of occurrence of, 45. 

,, ,, origin of, 60. 

,, ,, rocks associated with, 45. 

,, ,, situation and general description 

of, 43^4. 

„ mining, 45 et seq. 

„ ,, history of, 45—46. 

,, ores, metallurgical treatment of, 59. 
Correlation of New Zealand formations, difficulty 

of, 22. 
Cox, S. H., 7, 8. 

Cretaceo-tertiary rocks, supposed, 13. 
Culture, 5-6. 

Cumberlandite, 40 (note). 
Cuprite, 44, 46, 47 et seq. 


Davis, E. H., 7, 19, 30, 33, 40. 

Denudation, 10, 26, 39, 40, 65. 

Depression of land, 11. 

Descending waters produce native copper, 60. 

Devonian rocks, supposed (see also Te Anau rocks), 

Diabase, 35, 36, 43. 

,, analysis of, 36. 
,, altered, analyses of, 43. 
Diallage, analysis of, 31-32). 

,, large cleavage-plates of, 30. 
Differentiation of rock magmas, &c, 38, 60, 63. 
Dioptase, 44. 
Diorite, 35, 36. 
Doctor"s Lode (copper), 56. 
Duck Pond Lode (copper), 48. 
Dun Mountain, 10. 

„ chromium-deposits of, 61, 62. 

,, copper-deposits of, 46— 48. 

,, flora of, 2, 5. 

„ rocks and geology of, 11, 16 et seq, 

29 et seq. 
,, Tramway, 61, 66. 

(See also " Mineral Belt," &c.) 
Dunes, sand, 12, 27. 
Dunite, 29, 30, 66. 
Dykes, 29, 30, 31, 32, 39, 40, 51, 60, 61, 62. 


Economic geology, 1-2, 41-66. 

„ reasons for survey, 1-2. 

Eighty-eight Valley, rocks and geology of, 13. 
Elevation of land implied, 9, 10. 
Enner Glyn Coal-mine (.see also Jenkins Hill, York 

Creek),' 12, 23, 63, 64. 
Erosion, 10, 26, 39, 40, 65. 


Faults and faulting, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 22, 23, 45, 60, 

63, 64, 65. 
Fault scarps, 12, 15. 
Fauna, 3. 

Finlayson, A. M., 35 (footnote), 36. 
Flaxmoor Hills, conglomerate of, 21, 26. 

,, flora of, 4. 

Flood-plains, 10, 26, 27. 
Flora, 3-5. 

Folding of strata, 11, 12, 14-15, 22-23, 39. 
Formations, geological, sequence of, 11-12. 
Fossils, 12, 13, 17, 18-21, 22, 23-25. 
Fruit-growing, 6. 


" Gabbro " (see also Rodingite), 8, 31. 
Gamier, P. (senior), 18 (footnote), 37. 
Geological formations, sequence of, 11-12. 

,, ,, correlation of, with distant 

countries. 22. 
structure, 11, 12, 14-15, 22-23. 
,, surveys, previous, 12-13. 

Geology, economic, 1-2, 41-66. 
„ general, 11-13, 14. 
,, of igneous rocks, 29—40. 
,, of sedimentary rocks, 14-28. 
Gibbs, F. G., 3 (footnote), 19, 20. 
Gibbs or Church Vallev, coal in, 64. 
Gold, 42-43, 48 et seq." 
,, alluvial, 42. 

,, ,, concentration of, 42. 

,, in quartz veins, copper lodes, &c, 7, 42—13, 
,, 46 et seq. 

Gossan, gossanous material, 46 et seq., 52, &c. 
Graben, Waimea, 10, 12, 65. 
Granite, pebbles of, 16, 23, 26, 27. 
Gravels, 10, 12, 13, 26, 27, 42. 
Grey copper-ore reported, 51. 
Groom Creek, rocks and fossils of, 16, 22, 24, 25. 
Grossularite, 31 et seq., 66. 

,, analyses of, 32. 

Grossularite-gabbro (.see Rodingite). 


Hacket Creek, rocks and geology of, 16, 30. 34. 
Harzburgite, 29, 30. 

,, analysis of, 37. 

Haupiri Series (Parapara), 16. 
Hector, James, 7, 8, 11, 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 30, 44. 
" Hectorite," 8. 
Heslington Hills, flora of, 4. 

,, rocks and geology of 12, 15, 18, 

20, 21, 27. 
Hochstetter, F. von, 6, 11, 12, 13, 17, 19, 30, 31, 

32, 36, 38, 40, 41, 63. 
Hooper, Harlev E., on smelting of copper-ores, &c, 

Hop-growing, 6. 
Hutton, F. W., 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 21, 30, 31, 30, 40 

Hypersthene, supposed, 30. 
Hydro-magnesite, 44. 



Ice-transported (?) boulders, 23. 
Igneous rocks, 1, 11, 29^10. 

„ basic {see also Brook Street igneous 

rocks, Diabase, Diorite, &c), 11, 
35-30, 40. 
,, ultra-basic [see also " Mineral Belt," 

Dunite, Websterite, Harzburgite, 
Rodingite, &c), 1, 11, 29-35, 36- 
Imperial Consols Copper Company, 45. 
Lode, 49. 

Industries, (I. 

Information, general, 1-13. 
Inhabitants, 5-6. 
Inocrmwits, supposed, 13, IS, 19. 
Iron minerals, mixture of, 50. 
Iron-oxides, 44, 46 ct ««/. 
Iron-pyrites, 43. 
Islands, 11. 

Jackson Lode (copper), I!'. 
Jackson Saddle, chromite near, <i2. 

Jenkins Coal-mine [set also Knner Civil, York 

Creek). 12. 
Jenkins Hill Series or Beds, II 12, 22 2.".. 
„ age of. 25. 

coal of, 12, 23, 63-64. 
„ conglomerates of, 23. 

„ distribution of, 22. 

,, limestones of, 23. 

,, overturned by faulting, 12, 22, 

paleontology of, 23 25. 
,, petrology of, 23. 

,, sandstones of, 23. 

structure of, 22-23. 
Johnston's United Copper-mine, 7, 44, 46, 51. 
Judd, J. \\\. 31. 
Jurassic rocks, 14, 21. 

Kaihiku Scries, 13. 


Lacroix, A., 32. 

Land, movements of, 11. 

Lee River, rocks and geology of, 17, 27, 30, 34, 36, 

37, 39. 
Leighton's shaft, 64. 
Limestone, 17, 23, 05, 66. 

,, analyses of, 18, 66. 

foetid, 17. 
Literature, 6-9. 

Little Ben Nevis, chromite of, 62. 
Lodes, &c. (see Copper, Gold, &c.) 
Long Gully, rocks, &c, of, 36, 37, 39. 


McKay, Alex., 7, 9, 11, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, 24, 25, 

27, 40. 
Magmas, igneous, 38. 

„ differentiation of, 38, 60, 63. 
Magnetite in copper lodes, 44, 46 <t seq., 56. 
Maitai Lode (copper), 52. 

,, River, rocks and geology of, 17, 18, 39, &c. 

„ Series, 11, 12, 13, 14-22. 

,, ,, age and correlation of, 12, 14,21-22. 

„ argillites of, 17-18, 3s. 65. 
,, ,, ,, digested (?) by igneous 

magma, 38. 
,, ,, conglomerates of, 15-16. 

,, ,, distribution of, 14, 15-18. 

,, ,, igneous rocks associated with, 14. 

„ ,, palaeontology of, 18-21. 

„ ,, petrology of, 15-18. 

„ „ sandstones and grauwackes of, 16-17, 

,, ,, structure of, 14—15. 

,, ,, subdivision of, 10, 21. 

" slates," 17. 
Malachite, 44, 40 < I si </. 

,, hair-like, in geodes, 44, 49. 

Maoriland Copper Company, 43. 45 40, 57, 59, &c. 
,, metallurgical treat- 

ment followed by, 
Marshall, 1'.. 9, 20. 
Mates Creek, rocks, &o., of, 10. 
Matte, copper, 59. 
Melaconite (tenorite), 4 1, 17. 

Melantente. 44. 

Melaphvre (set also Brook Street igneous rocks), 40, 

Mesozoic strata, 12. 13, 14 el seq., 39. 
Metamorphism. thermal, 38, 39. 
Middy Creek, rocks, &c, of, 10, 35. 
Miner Stream, chromite of, 02. 

rocks and geology of, 18, 28, 29, 39, 
65, oo. 
" Mineral Belt," I, 11, 12, 13, 29 10 
„ age of, 39. 

,, distribution and general descrip- 

tion of rocks of. 29-30. 
,, intrusive character of rocks of, 

13, 38 :!'». 
,, petrology of rocks of, 30-38. 

,, vegetation of, 2, 5, 43. 

,, ( upper ( lompany, 45. 

Mining [set ( lhapter IV). 
Miocene strata, 11, 13, 22-20, 63 65. 
" Monster Blow,'' 50. 
Monster Lode (copper), 45, 50-51. 
Mountain-forming rocks of New Zealand, age of, 

Mountain-range in Miocene times, 23. 
Mountains and hills, 10. 
Mount Claude West Lodes (copper), 49. 
Moutere Gravels, 10, 12, 13, 26-27, 39, 42. 
,, ,, age of, 27. 

,, ,, arrangement of, 20. 

,, ,, gold, alluvial, in, 42. 

,, ,, petrology of, 20-27. 

Hills, 10. 
,, „ rocks and geology of (see Moutere 

( travels). 
,, River, ancient hypothetical, 10, 26, 42, 65. 


.Natural features, 2-5. 

Nelson Province, settlement of, 5. 


New Caledonia, Triassic rocks of, 18. 

,, ultra-basic rocks of, 37. 

New Zealand Copper Estates Company, 45. 
Nickel in copper-ore, 44, 48 et seq. 


Oamaru Series, 24, 25. 

O'Brien Creek, limestone of, 23, 66. 

" Old Horse " copper-deposit, 47. 

• divine-bearing rocks (sec also Dunite, Harzburgite, 

Basalt), 30, 40. 
Oxidation of copper-ores, 44 et seq., 50, 56, 60. 

Palaeontology of Jenkins Hill Series, 23-25. 

„ Maitai Series, 18-21. 

Parapara Subdivision, 2, 16. 
Park, James, 8, 9, 11, 13, 21, 24, 25. 
Pelorus River, 10. 

„ alluvial gold of, 42. 

,, rocks and geology of, 15, 16, &c. 

Peneplain, ancient, 9-10. 
Peridotites, 29, 30, 66. 
Physiography, 9-11. 
Pic'otite, 30, 45. 
Pitching anticlines, 15. 
Plains, river-flats, 4, 10, 26, 27. 

,, flora of, 4. 
Plan of conducting work, 2. 
Plant-life, 3-5. 
Plutonic rocks, 29 et seq. 
Poor Man Creek, coal near, 64. 
Population, 5-6. 
Porphvrite, feldspar, 40. 
Port Hills, 4, 10, 12, &c. 

Beds, 11, 13, 22 et seq. 
„ flora of, 4. 

fossils of, 23-25. 

rocks and geology of, 11, 12, 13, 22 
et seq., 26. 
Pratt, J. H., 63. 
Prehnite, 34, 35. 

,, analysis of, 34. 
„ -rodingite, 34, 35. 

,, ,, analysis of, 35. 

Pyrite (iron-pyrites), 43. 

Pyrrhotite, cupriferous, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 54, 
55, 56, 57, 60. 
S.G. of, 56. 


Quartz veins, auriferous, 42-^3. 
Queensland, Cretaceous limestone of, 19. 


Rainfall, tables of, 3. 

" Rare earths," 42. 

Recent rocks, 27-28. 

Reservoir Creek, coal-mining near, 64. 

Resin (amberite) in coal, 64. 

Richmond, coal-prospecting near, 63. 

or Waimea Fault, 12, 15, 22, 23, 64, 65. 
Hills, flora of, 4. 
,, ,, rocks and geology of, 11, 12, 15, 

17, 26, 27, 65. ' 
„ Sandstone, 12, 13. 
River-flats, 4, 10, 26, 27. 

,, flora of, 4. 

Rivers, 10. 

Boding River, rocks and geology of, 1, 17, 18, 31 
et seq. 
„ copper-ores of {see also United Mine, 

Champion Mine, &c.), 1, 43 et seq. 
Rodingite. 26, 29, 30, 31-35, 44, 51, &c. 
analyses of, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37. 
,, boulder of, in Moutere Gravels, 26, 39. 

dykes of, 29, 31 et seq., 39, 51, 60, 61, 62. 
,, genetic connection of, with copper-ore, 

44, 60. 
,, rocks resembling, 31-32. 


Saddle Lode (copper), 48. 

Sandbars, &c, 11, 12. 

Sand-dunes, 12, 27. 

Saponitc, 27. 

Saurian remains, 21. 

Saxton Creek, porphvrite of, 40. 

Scenery, 2. 

Secondary copper minerals (.see also Copper, native, 

&c.), 44, 60, &c. 
Sedimentary rocks, geology of, 14-28. 
Sellen's, limestone near, i7. 
Serpentine, 12, 29, 36-37, &c. 

,, analysis of, 37. 

,, prehnite-rodingite, 35, 37. 

,, ,, ,, analysis of, 37. 

Serpentine Valley, chromite in, <i2. 

,, rocks and geology of, 27, 39, &c. 

Shear-zones (with copper-ore), 45, 60. 
Sheep-farming, 6. 
Shore-line, 11. 
" Slates, Maitai," 17. 
Sollas, W. J., 9. 

Spring (Jrove, saurian remains near, 21. 
Starveall, Mount, 10, 42. 
Stones, building-, 65-66. 
Stratford, Mark and Fred, copper-discoveries by, 

Streams, 10. 

Structure, general geological, 11-12, 14-15, 22-23. 
Surveys, previous geological, 12-13. 
Synclinorium, 15. 


Table of geological formations, opposite p. 13. 

,, rainfall, 3. 

„ temperature, 2. 
Talc, 52. 
Talus slopes, 27. 

Te Anau or Devonian rocks, supposed, 13, 16, 21. 
Tectonic valley (graben), 10, 12, 65. 
Tuiaperature, 2. 
Tenorite (melaconite), 44, 47. 
Terraces, gravel, 10. 

,, or benches, rock, 10. 
Tertiary strata (see Jenkins Hill Series, Moutere 

Travertine, 12, 28, 66. 

Triassic and Trias-Jura rocks, 12, 14 et seq., 21, 22 
fossils, 12, 18-21, 22. 
(See also Maitai Series.) 



Unconformities, 11, 12, 16. 

United Creek, copper-ore of (.see United Mine). 

,, rocks and geology of, 17, 18, 3ti, &e. 
,, Copper Mine and Company, -15. 51—55. 
,, ,, analyses of ore of, 53 el seq. 

„ ,, development of, 51-52. 

„ ,, metallurgical treatment at, 

„ „ mineral character of ore of, 

,, „ quantity of ore in, 55. 

,, „ shoots of ore of, 52 ei seq. 

Valleys, 10. 

Veins, quartz, 42-43. 

,, copper, 43 <t seq. 
Vogt, J. H. L., 03. 
Volcanic rocks, 40. 


Waimea Fault, 12 (footnote). 
,, yrabeii, 10, 12, 65. 

Plain, 2, 4, 10. 
„ „ coal under, 05. 

Wairoa limestone, 13, 17, 18, 20. 
W'airoa River and Gorge, rocks and neology of, 13, 
15, 17, 18, 20. 21. 
„ Series, 13. 
Water-power, 10. 
Websterite, 20, 30-31, 02. 

,, analysis of, 31-37. 

dvkes of, 29, 30, 02. 
Wells, W., 7,' 8. 
Wintrip Copper Lode, 47-48. 
" Wood, The," copper-deposit at, 44, 45, 40. 
Wooded Peak, 10. 

„ rocks and geology of, 12, 30, &c. 

Worley, W. K., 8, 11, 23, 27. 
Worm trails, fossil, IS. 10. 
Wrey, W. L., copper and chromite mining by, 45. 


York (reck, coal-mine in [see also Knncr Glyn), 
12, 23, 03, 04. 

Zittel, K. A., 19. 

Zerophvtic plant-association of " Mineral Belt," 5. 
Zones, fault or shear, 45, 00. 

By Authority: John Mackay, Government Printer, Wellington — 191 1. 

1 700/3,-1 i-a:iK7 


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